wonders in life

11/24/17; 12/25/17; 4/3/18

WONDERS

(wonders and things that have changed the world)

CONTENTS-

WONDERS FROM GOD:

  1. the cosmos
  2. the female form
  3. psychics and mediums

WONDERS CREATED BY PEOPLE:

4. Bread and yes music, star trek and lost in space science fiction tv shows  (these are my favorites)

5. Antibiotics, Anesthetics, tranquilizers, penicillin, aspirin,

prozac, vaccination, antiseptics, polio vaccine

6. X-rays

7. Metric system and SI units

8. Calculus

9. Global positioning satellites

10. Computer programming languages

11. CAT, PET scans and MRI

12. human brain project

13. human genome project

14. Genetic engineering

15. DNA testing

16. Cloning

17. plastic/nylon/polymers

18. Comet sample returned to earth

19. Cassini spacecraft visits saturn

20. Pluto mission

21. Landing on titan

22. Landing on a comet and asteroid

23. Moon landing

24. Pioneers and voyagers space probes

25. Spacecraft lands on the planet venus

26. Memory sticks

27. Internet / world wide web

28. Smart phones

29. Artificial intelligence

30. Email

31. Internet search

32. Wikipedia

33. Voice recognition

34. Artificial neural networks

35. grid computing

36. Hypertexts

37. Nanotechnology

38. Computer aided design

39. word processors

40. Supercomputers

41. Enigma code machine

42. Large hadron collider

43. Very large array

44. Laser

45. Optic fibers

46. Atomic clock

47. Electron microscope

48. Maglev

49. International space station

50. Space shuttle

51. Hyperjets

52. Satellites

53. Rockets

54. Computers

55. Fission

56. Nuclear reactor

57. Nuclear Fusion

58. Automation/robotics

59. Lightbulb

60. Telephones

61. Wireless communication

62. Television

63. Radio

64. Camera

65. Radar

66. Microprocessor

67. integrated circuit

68. Internal combustion engine

69. Airplane

70. Steam engine

71. train/railway

72. Writing

73. Compass

74. Morse code/telegraph

75. fire

76. Wheel

77. Concrete

78. Nails

79. Tools

80. Steel

81. petrol/gasoline

82. Air conditioning

83. Refrigerator

84. Printing press

85. Battery

86. a/c and d/c currents

87. Electric motor

88. Electromagnet

89. Mig23 jet (#s 89-95 my favorites)

90. F4 Phantom jet

91.  Blackjack bomber

92. B1 bomber

93. F111 jet

94. F104 jet

95. F105 jet

96. Supersonic transport jet

97. Cruise missile

98. ICBM

99. Ballistic submarines

100. Cathedrals

101. 3,600 foot tunnel through a mountain made in 530 BC

102. 770 foot bridge made in 1189 AD

103. Stonehenge

104. Taj mahal

105. 7 wonders of the world

106. contraceptives/birth control

107. Bank notes

108. Credit cards

109. ATMs

110. Stealth technology

111. Public key cryptography

112. Atomic and hydrogen bombs (mostly has caused fear in mankind)

my favorite creation—

  1. the universe
  2. people
  3. wikepidia
  4. internet
  5. smart phone
  6. GPS
  7. memory sticks

WONDERS FROM GOD:

  1. the cosmos

The universe is very big. If our earth were the size of a smoke particle, the nearest star would be 2 miles away, and the distance from one end of the universe to the other would be equivalent to going around the earth 5.4 million times. time as measured astronomically is very long. If an inch were equal to a year, a very short lived star’s lifespan would measure about 160 miles length. The sun’s lifespan would measure a distance of 20 times around the earth. There are some stars which will live the equivalent time of going around the earth 20,000 times with 1 inch equaling a year. The number of all the stars in the universe would make a sphere 26 miles big if each star were the size of a grain of sand. If all the stars in the universe were divided equally with every person on earth, and each star were the size of a grain of sand, a sphere 1,759 feet large of stars could be given to each person on earth.

2. Female orm

3. psychics and mediums

WONDERS CREATED BY PEOPLE:

4. Bread (make it with you), yes music (just to name my favorite and only 2 among many many.), and star trek

5. Antibiotics, Anesthetics, tranquilizers, penicillin, aspirin,

prozac, vaccination, antiseptics, polio vaccine

(all of these have greatly lessened human suffering.)

6. Antibiotics-

Medicines to fight of bacterial infections. Anesthetic-drugs used to prevent pain during surgery.

TRANQUILIZERS, ANTIPSYCHOTIC, and ANTIDEPRESSANT MEDICINES- drugs which have greatly reduced the suffering of those with mental illness.

Penicillin Penicillin V potassium is an antibiotic used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria such as pneumonia, scarlet fever, and ear, skin, and throat infections. It also is used to prevent recurrent rheumatic fever and chorea.

Aspirin Aspirin is used to reduce fever and relieve mild to moderate pain from conditions such as muscle aches, toothaches, common cold, and headaches. It may also be used to reduce pain and swelling in conditions such as arthritis.

7. X-rays They are used in hospitals to produce photographs of bones which can be checked for breaks or fractures.

8. Metric system and SI units the system most widely used around the world. its base units are the metre, kilogram, second, ampere, kelvin, candela and mole. It is simple to learn and easy to use because of its decimal nature. it is easy to convert between units (e.g. from millimetres to metres, or grams to kilograms) simply by multiplying or dividing by 10, 100, 1000, etc. Often this is just a case of moving the decimal point to the right or left.

9. Calculus It is used to create mathematical models in order to arrive into an optimal solution. For example, in physics, calculus is used in a lot of its concepts. Among the physical concepts that use concepts of calculus include motion, electricity, heat, light, harmonics, acoustics, astronomy, and dynamics. Calculus 2 main sides are differential calculus as the mathematics of motion and change, and Integral calculus covers the accumulation of quantities, such as areas under a curve.

10. Global positioning satellites the Global Positioning System (GPS), originally Navstar GPS, is a space-based radionavigation system owned by the United States government and operated by the United States Air Force. It is a global navigation satellite system that provides geolocation and time information to a GPS receiver anywhere on or near the Earth where there is an unobstructed line of sight to four or more GPS satellites. In addition to GPS, other systems are in use or under development, mainly because the US government can selectively deny access to the system, as happened to the Indian military in 1999 during the Kargil War, or degrade the service at any time. The Russian Global Navigation Satellite System (GLONASS) was developed contemporaneously with GPS, but suffered from incomplete coverage of the globe until the mid-2000s. GLONASS can be added to GPS devices, making more satellites available and enabling positions to be fixed more quickly and accurately, to within two meters.

11. Computer programming languages Programming language is important because it defines the relationship, semantics and grammar which allows the programmers to effectively communicate with the machines that they program.

12. CAT and PET scans, MRI

A computerized tomography (CT) scan combines a series of X-ray images taken from different angles and uses computer processing to create cross-sectional images, or slices, of the bones, blood vessels and soft tissues inside your body. CT scan images provide more detailed information than plain X-rays do.

A positron emission tomography (PET) scan is an imaging test that allows your doctor to check for diseases in your body. The scan uses a special dye that has radioactive tracers. These tracers are injected into a vein in your arm. Your organs and tissues then absorb the tracer.

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a test that uses powerful magnets, radio waves, and a computer to make detailed pictures inside your body. … Unlike X-rays and CT scans, an MRI doesn’t use radiation.

13. Human Brain Project Technologies generated by the HBP and other similar projects offer several possibilities to other fields of research. For instance, a brain model can be used to investigate signatures of disease in the brain and the impact of certain drugs, enabling the development of better diagnosis and treatment methods.

14. human genome project The Human Genome Project (HGP) was an international scientific research project with the goal of determining the sequence of nucleotide base pairs that make up human DNA, and of identifying and mapping all of the genes of the human genome from both a physical and a functional standpoint. It is important because it uses information from DNA to develop new ways to treat, cure, or even prevent the thousands of diseases that afflict humankind.

14. DNA/genetic testing Genetic testing is a type of medical test that identifies changes in chromosomes, genes, or proteins. The results of a genetic test can confirm or rule out a suspected genetic condition or help determine a person’s chance of developing or passing on a genetic disorder. Genetic testing has potential benefits whether the results are positive or negative for a gene mutation. Test results can provide a sense of relief from uncertainty and help people make informed decisions about managing their health care. A common use for a DNA test is to establish if a man is the biological father of a child; this is known as a paternity test. The test is used to determine whether a family relationship exists between two people, to identify organisms causing a disease, and to solve crimes. Only a small sample of cells is needed for DNA fingerprinting. A drop of blood or the root of a hair contains enough DNA for testing.

16. Cloning Clones are organisms that are exact genetic copies. Every single bit of their DNA is identical. Clones can happen naturally identical twins are just one of many examples. … Below, find out how natural identical twins are similar to and different from clones made through modern cloning technologies. Therapeutic cloning involves creating a cloned embryo for the sole purpose of producing embryonic stem cells with the same DNA as the donor cell. These stem cells can be used in experiments aimed at understanding disease and developing new treatments for disease.

17. plastic/nylon/polymers

plastics-a synthetic material made from a wide range of organic polymers such as polyethylene, PVC, nylon, etc., that can be molded into shape while soft and then set into a rigid or slightly elastic form. Plastics are employed in myriad applications where they actually conserve natural resources. For example, asceptic packaging of food in barrier packaging films will save refrigeration cost and saving capital and energy.

nylon a tough, lightweight, elastic synthetic polymer with a protein like chemical structure, able to be produced as filaments, sheets, or molded objects. Nylon fabric became important as a synthetic substitute for silk in the manufacture of parachutes when silk became scarce during WWII. Nylon is still used today to make parachute canopies due to its elasticity, strength, resistance to mildew, availability and price.

polymers Polymers, whether natural or artificial, are big molecules made by linking up smaller repeating chemical units. The most common “backbones” for polymers are chains of carbon or silicon, each of which can bond to four other atoms. Polyethylene is one of the most common polymeric materials found in plastic packaging, bottles and shopping bags. The uses of polyethylene are very different from another polymer, poly(vinyl chloride), which is commonly used for water pipes and is able to withstand large amounts of pressure.

18. Comet sample return mission

Rosetta

Launch date:
2 March 2004
Mission duration:
13 years, 5 months and 25 days elapsed NSSDC ID:
Rosetta was an era space probe. It is on a mission to study the comet 67p/chuyumov-gerasimenko.

19. Cassini spacecraft visits saturn a collaborative space mission by nasa, the European space agency, and the Italian space agency to study the planet saturn.

20. Pluto mission

The launch of New Horizons on the Atlas V 551.
New Horizons is a space probe launched by NASA on 19 January 2006, to the dwarf planet Pluto and on an escape trajectory from the Sun. It is the first man-made spacecraft to go to Pluto. Its flight took eight years. It arrived at the Pluto-Charon system on July 14, 2015. The primary mission of New Horizons is to study Pluto and its system of moons. The secondary mission is to study any objects in the Kuiper Belt, if something became available for a flyby.

The space probe set the record for the fastest man-made object ever launched, with the Earth-relative speed of about 16.26 km/s, although, arguably, the Helios probes got a faster Sun-relative speed. It used a gravity assist from Jupiter to get there. In 2019 the probe is expected to flyby and study a small Kuiper Belt object. After that, it won’t have enough propellant to go to another target. It will continue to report about its environment.

21. Landing on titan

Cassini-Huygens mission

On July 1, 2004, the Cassini-Huygens probe entered into orbit around Saturn. On December 25, 2004, the Huygens probe separated from the Cassini probe and started to move towards Titan. It landed on Titan’s surface on January 14, 2005. It landed on a dry surface, but it confirmed that large bodies of liquid exist on the moon.  Cassini proved in July, 2006 that Titan contained hydrocarbon lakes, located near its north pole. In March, 2007, it discovered a large hydrocarbon lake the size of the Caspian Sea near its north pole. The lake of liquid methane has been named Kraken Mare. In 2009, Nasa showed a photograph showing the sunlight reflecting off the surface of the lake. This was the first ever picture of liquid on another world.

22. Landing on a comet and an asteroid

12 February 2001
First landing on an asteroid (433 Eros)

Europe (ESA) Japan (JAXA)

23. Moon landing

Apollo 11

Apollo 11 become the first human mission to the surface of the Moon.

24. Spacecraft lands on venus The Venera (Russian: Венера, pronounced [vʲɪˈnʲɛrə]) series space probes were developed by the Soviet Union between 1961 and 1984 to gather data from Venus, Venera being the Russian name for Venus. probes of the series became the first human-made devices to enter the atmosphere of another planet (Venera 4 on October 18, 1967), to make a soft landing on another planet (Venera 7 on December 15, 1970), to return images from the planetary surface (Venera 9 on June 8, 1975), and to perform high-resolution radar mapping studies of Venus (Venera 15 on June 2, 1983).

25. Pioneers and voyagers spacecrafts The Pioneer program is a series of United States unmanned space missions that were designed for planetary exploration. There were a number of such missions in the program, but the most notable were Pioneer 10 and Pioneer 11, which explored the outer planets and left the solar system. Pioneer 10 and Pioneer 11 carry a golden plaque, depicting a man and a woman and information about the origin and the creators of the probes, should any extraterrestrials find them someday.

The Voyager program is a continuing American scientific program that employs two robotic probes, Voyager 1 and Voyager 2, to study the outer Solar System. They were launched in 1977 to take advantage of a favorable alignment of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune, and are now exploring the outer boundary of the heliosphere in interstellar space. Although their original mission was to study only the planetary systems of Jupiter and Saturn, Voyager 2 continued on to Uranus and Neptune, and both Voyagers are now tasked with exploring interstellar space. Their mission has been extended three times, and both probes continue to collect and relay useful scientific data. Neither Uranus nor Neptune has been visited by any probe other than Voyager 2.

On 25 August 2012, data from Voyager 1 indicated that it had become the first human-made object to enter interstellar space, traveling “further than anyone, or anything, in history”. As of 2013, Voyager 1 was moving with a velocity of 17 kilometers per second (11 mi/s) relative to the Sun.

26. Memory sticks

Flash memory is a memory storage device for computers and electronics. It is most often used in devices like digital cameras, USB flash drives, and video games. Flash can keep its data intact with no power at all. A hard drive also is permanent (non-volatile) storage, but it is bulky and fragile. Flash memory is one kind of Non-volatile random-access memory. It is slower than RAM but faster than hard drives. It is much used in small electronics because it is small and has no moving parts. memory. The chip on the right is the controller chip

The main weakness of flash memory is that it is more expensive than hard drives for the same amount of storage. Another weakness of flash memory is the number of times that data can be written to it. Data can be read from flash as many times as desired, but after a certain number of “write” operations, it will stop working. Most flash devices are designed for about 100,000 writings.

27. Internet / world wide web an information system on the Internet that allows documents to be connected to other documents by hypertext links, enabling the user to search for information by moving from one document to another.

28. Smart phones It’s the small device you can hold in your hand that lets you make phones calls on the go.

29. Artificial intelligence the theory and development of computer systems able to perform tasks that normally require human intelligence, such as visual perception, speech recognition, decision-making, and translation between languages.

30. Email is a method of exchanging messages between people using electronics. Email first entered substantial use in the 1960s and by the mid-1970s had taken the form now recognized as email.Email operates across computer networks, which today is primarily the Internet.

31. Internet search A web search engine is a software system that is designed to search for information on the World Wide Web. The search results are generally presented in a line of results often referred to as search engine results pages.

32. Wikipedia Wikipedia is a free, open content online encyclopedia created through the collaborative effort of a community of users known as Wikipedians. Anyone registered on the site can create an article for publication; registration is not required to edit articles.

33. Voice recognition Voice or speech recognition is the ability of a machine or program to receive and interpret dictation, or to understand and carry out spoken commands.

34. Artificial neural networks Artificial neural networks (ANNs) or connectionist systems are computing systems inspired by the biological neural networks that constitute animal brains. … An ANN is based on a collection of connected units or nodes called artificial neurons (analogous to biological neurons in an animal brain).

35. grid computing Grid computing is the collection of computer resources from multiple locations to reach a common goal.

36. Hypertexts a software system that links topics on the screen to related information and graphics, which are typically accessed by a point-and-click method.

37. Nanotechnology–the branch of technology that deals with dimensions and tolerances of less than 100 nanometers, especially the manipulation of individual atoms and molecules. Nanoscience and nanotechnology are the study and application of extremely small things and can be used across all the other science fields, such as chemistry, biology, physics, materials science, and engineering.

38. Computer aided design Computer-aided design (CAD) is the use of computer systems (or workstations) to aid in the creation, modification, analysis, or optimization of a design. CAD (computer-aided design) software is used by architects, engineers, drafters, artists, and others to create precision drawings or technical illustrations. CAD software can be used to create two-dimensional (2-D) drawings or three-dimensional (3-D) m

39. word processors an electronic device or computer software application, that performs the task of composing, editing, formatting, and printing of documents.

40. Supercomputers A supercomputer is a computer that performs at or near the currently highest operational rate for computers. Traditionally, supercomputers have been used for scientific and engineering applications that must handle very large databases or do a great amount of computation (or both).Supercomputers play an important role in the field of computational science, and are used for a wide range of computationally intensive tasks in various fields, including quantum mechanics, weather forecasting, climate research, oil and gas exploration, molecular modeling (computing the structures and properties of chemical compounds, biological macromolecules, polymers, and crystals), and physical simulations (such as simulations of the early moments of the universe, airplane and spacecraft aerodynamics, the detonation of nuclear weapons, and nuclear fusion). Throughout their history, they have been essential in the field of cryptanalysis.

41. Enigma code machine The Enigma machine is a piece of spook hardware invented by a German and used by Britain’s codebreakers as a way of deciphering German signals traffic during World War Two.

42. Large hadron collider The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is by far the most powerful particle accelerator built to date. Following an upgrade, the LHC now operates at an energy that is 7 times higher than any previous machine! The LHC is based at the European particle physics laboratory CERN, near Geneva in Switzerland. The Large Hadron Collider consists of a 27-kilometre ring of superconducting magnets with a number of accelerating structures to boost the energy of the particles along the way. Inside the accelerator, two high-energy particle beams travel at close to the speed of light before they are made to collide. the research at the LHC involves the collision of hadrons. A hadron is a particle which consists of a number of quarks held together by the subatomic strong force. Protons and neutrons are examples of a hadron. The LHC primarily uses the collision of protons in its experiments.[3] Protons are parts of atoms with a positive charge. The LHC accelerates these protons through the tunnel until they reach nearly the speed of light. [1] Different protons are directed through the tunnel in opposite directions. When they collide, they create conditions similar to the early universe. The LHC attempts to study elementary particles and the ways they interact. It has already taught us a lot about quantum physics, and researchers are hoping to learn a lot more about the structure of space and time. The observations researchers are able to make can help us learn what the universe might have been like within milliseconds after the big bang.

43. Very large array The VLA is used primarily by astronomers from around the world. It’s also occasionally used for atmospheric/weather studies, satellite tracking, and other miscellaneous science. Astronomers using the VLA have made key observations of black holes and protoplanetary disks around young stars, discovered magnetic filaments and traced complex gas motions at the Milky Way’s center, probed the Universe’s cosmological parameters, and provided new knowledge about the physical mechanisms that produce radio emission.

44. Laser A laser is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation. The term “laser” originated as an acronym for “light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation Applications in Medical applications, welding and Cutting, surveying, garment industry, laser nuclear fusion, communication, laser printing, CDs and optical discs, spectroscopy, heat treatment, barcode scanners, laser cooling.

45. Optic fibers glass or plastic fibers that serve as conduit for pulses of light to travel over distances. The light carries data, allowing fiber optic cables to be used as an alternative to traditional metal cabling.

46. Atomic clock–An atomic clock is a clock device that uses an electron transition frequency in the microwave, optical, or ultraviolet region[2] of the electromagnetic spectrum of atoms as a frequency standard for its timekeeping element. Atomic clocks are the most accurate time and frequency standards known, and are used as primary standards for international time distribution services, to control the wave frequency of television broadcasts, and in global navigation satellite systems such as GPS. control the wave frequency of television broadcasts, and in global navigation satellite systems such as GPS.

47. Electron microscope An electron microscope is a microscope that uses a beam of accelerated electrons as a source of illumination. As the wavelength of an electron can be up to 100,000 times shorter than that of visible light photons, electron microscopes have a higher resolving power than light microscopes and can reveal the structure of smaller objects. A scanning transmission electron microscope has achieved better than 50 pm resolution in annular dark-field imaging mode[1] and magnifications of up to about 10,000,000x whereas most light microscopes are limited by diffraction to about 200 nm resolution and useful magnifications below 2000x.
Electron microscopes are used to investigate the ultrastructure of a wide range of biological and inorganic specimens including microorganisms, cells, large molecules, biopsy samples, metals, and crystals. Industrially, electron microscopes are often used for quality control and failure analysis. Modern electron microscopes produce electron micrographs using specialized digital cameras and frame grabbers to capture the image.

48. Maglev is a public transport technology that uses magnetic levitation to move vehicles without making contact with the ground or an electrical pickup. Maglev competes with high speed rail and airlines. In itself, maglev technology does away with moving parts, allowing vehicles to move more smoothly and more quietly than wheeled transport. A vehicle travels along a guideway provided with magnets to control in-flight stability and create propulsion and lift, eliminating the mechanical constraints of dry friction. In the case of conventional high speed trains, wear and tear of wheels on rails and on the electrical pickup limit highest speeds. Maglev vehicles hold the speed record for trains. In practice, as with all high speed transport, time for acceleration and deceleration allows fewer stops if higher top speeds are to be effectively utilized. In the case of maglev, acceleration and deceleration are essentially limited by the wellbeing and safety of the passengers.

49. International space station The International Space Station is a large spacecraft in orbit around Earth. It serves as a home where crews of astronauts and cosmonauts live. The space station is also a unique science laboratory. Several nations worked together to build and use the space station.

Height

20 m (66 ft)
Orbital speed
7.67 km/s[3]
(27,600 km/h; 17,200 mph)

Orbital period
92.65 minutes
Orbits per day
15.54
Orbit epoch
7 July 2017, 13:10:09 UTC Days in orbit
18 years, 9 months, 7 days
(27 August 2017)
Days occupied
16 years, 9 months, 25 days (27 August 2017)
No. of orbits
102,491 as of July 2017[3] Orbital decay
2 km/month
Statistics as of 9 March 2011 (unless noted otherwise)

50. Space shuttle Space shuttle, also called Space Transportation System, partially reusable rocket -launched vehicle designed to go into orbit around Earth, to transport people and cargo to and from orbiting spacecraft, and to glide to a runway landing on its return to Earth’s surface.

51. Hyperjets  crewless experimental hypersonic glide vehicle rocket glider. It is capable of traveling 13,000 miles per hour.

52. Satellites a satellite is an artificial object which has been intentionally placed into orbit. Such objects are sometimes called artificial satellites to distinguish them from natural satellites such as Earth’s Moon. In 1957 the Soviet Union launched the world’s first artificial satellite, Sputnik 1. Since then, about 6,600 satellites from more than 40 countries have been launched. According to a 2013 estimate, 3,600 remained in orbit.Over a dozen space probes have been placed into orbit around other bodies and become artificial satellites to the Moon, Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, a few asteroids, and the Sun. Satellites are used for many purposes. Common types include military and civilian Earth observation satellites, communications satellites, navigation satellites, weather satellites, and space telescopes. Space stations and human spacecraft in orbit are also satellites. Satellite orbits vary greatly, depending on the purpose of the satellite, and are classified in a number of ways. Well-known (overlapping) classes include low Earth orbit, polar orbit, and geostationary orbit.

53. Rockets is a missile, spacecraft, aircraft or other vehicle that obtains thrust from a rocket engine.

54. Computers A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out arbitrary sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. The ability of computers to follow generalized sets of operations, called programs, enables them to perform an extremely wide range of tasks.

55. Fission The process of splitting a nucleus is called nuclear fission. Uranium or plutonium isotopes are normally used as the fuel in nuclear reactors, because their atoms have relatively large nuclei that are easy to split, especially when hit by neutrons. In nuclear fission, atoms are split to release the energy. A nuclear reactor, or power plant, is a series of machines that can control nuclear fission to produce electricity. The fuel that nuclear reactors use to produce nuclear fission is pellets of the element uranium.

56. Nuclear reactor A nuclear reactor, formerly known as an atomic pile, is a device used to initiate and control a sustained nuclear chain reaction. Nuclear reactors are used at nuclear power plants for electricity generation and in propulsion of ships.

57. Nuclear Fusion a nuclear reaction in which atomic nuclei of low atomic number fuse to form a heavier nucleus with the release of energy. The hydrogen bomb uses an atomic (fission) bomb to start fusion reactions. Scientists and engineers have been trying for decades to find a safe and working way of controlling and containing fusion reactions to generate electricity. They still have many challenges to overcome before fusion power can be used as a clean source of energy.

58. Automation/robotics automation-the use of largely automatic equipment in a system of manufacturing or other production process. robotics-the branch of technology that deals with the design, construction, operation, and application of robots.

59. Lightbulb An incandescent light bulb, incandescent lamp or incandescent light globe is an electric light with a wire filament heated to such a high temperature that it glows with visible light (incandescence). The filament, heated by passing an electric current through it, causing it to glow and create light.

60. Telephones A telephone, or phone, is a telecommunications device that permits two or more users to conduct a conversation when they are too far apart to be heard directly. A telephone converts sound, typically and most efficiently the human voice, into electronic signals suitable for transmission via cables or other transmission media over long distances, and replays such signals simultaneously in audible form to its user.

61. Wireless communication Wireless communications is a type of data communication that is performed and delivered wirelessly. This is a broad term that incorporates all procedures and forms of connecting and communicating between two or more devices using a wireless signal through wireless communication technologies and devices. various types of wireless communication like Infrared, Satellite, Microwave Radio and Broadcast Radio are employed. various types of fixed, mobile, and portable applications, including two-way radios, cellular telephones, personal digital assistants (PDAs), and wireless networking. Other examples of applications of radio wireless technology include GPS units, garage door openers, wireless computer mice, keyboards and headsets, headphones, radio receivers, satellite television, broadcast television and cordless telephones.

62. Television Television (TV) is a telecommunication medium used for transmitting moving images in monochrome (black-and-white), or in color, and in two or three dimensions and sound. Television is a mass medium for entertainment, education, news, politics, gossip, and advertising.

63. Radio Radio is the technology of using radio waves to carry information, such as sound, by systematically modulating properties of electromagnetic energy waves transmitted through space, such as their amplitude, frequency, phase, or pulse width.

64. Camera A camera is an optical instrument for recording or capturing images, which may be stored locally, transmitted to another location, or both. The images may be individual still photographs or sequences of images constituting videos or movies.

65. Radar Radar is an object-detection system that uses radio waves to determine the range, angle, or velocity of objects. It can be used to detect aircraft, ships, spacecraft, guided missiles, motor vehicles, weather formations, and terrain.Long-range radar antenna, used to track space objects and ballistic missiles.

66. Microprocessor A microprocessor is a computer processor which incorporates the functions of a computer’s central processing unit (CPU) on a single integrated circuit (IC), or at most a few integrated circuits.

67. integrated circuit

An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip) is a set of electronic circuits on one small flat piece (or “chip”) of semiconductor material, normally silicon. The integration of large numbers of tiny transistors into a small chip results in circuits that are orders of magnitude smaller, cheaper, and faster than those constructed of discrete electronic components. The IC’s mass production capability, reliability and building-block approach to circuit design has ensured the rapid adoption of standardized ICs in place of designs using discrete transistors. ICs are now used in virtually all electronic equipment and have revolutionized the world of electronics. Computers, mobile phones, and other digital home appliances and are now inextricable parts of the structure of modern societies, made possible by the small size and low cost of ICs.

68. Internal combustion engine An internal combustion engine (ICE) is a heat engine where the combustion of a fuel occurs with an oxidizer (usually air) in a combustion chamber that is an integral part of the working fluid flow circuit. In an internal combustion engine the expansion of the high-temperature and high-pressure gases produced by combustion applies direct force to some component of the engine. The force is applied typically to pistons, turbine blades, rotor or a nozzle. This force moves the component over a distance, transforming chemical energy into useful mechanical energy.

69. Airplane An airplane or aeroplane (informally plane) is a powered, fixed-wing aircraft that is propelled forward by thrust from a jet engine or propeller. Airplanes come in a variety of sizes, shapes, and wing configurations. The broad spectrum of uses for airplanes includes recreation, transportation of goods and people, military, and research. Commercial aviation is a massive industry involving the flying of tens of thousands of passengers daily on airliners.

70. Steam engine A steam engine is a heat engine that performs mechanical work using steam as its working fluid.
Steam engines are external combustion engines,[2] where the working fluid is separated from the combustion products. Non-combustion heat sources such as solar power, nuclear power or geothermal energy may be used. The ideal thermodynamic cycle used to analyze this process is called the Rankine cycle. In the cycle, water is heated and transforms into steam within a boiler operating at a high pressure. When expanded through pistons or turbines, mechanical work is done. The reduced pressure steam is then exhausted to the atmosphere, or condensed and pumped back into the boiler.

71. train/railway A train is a form of rail transport consisting of a series of connected vehicles that usually runs along a rail track to transport cargo or passengers. Motive power is provided by a separate locomotive or individual motors in self-propelled multiple unit. Although historically steam propulsion dominated, the most common modern forms are diesel and electric locomotives, the latter supplied by overhead wires or additional rails. Other energy sources include horses, engine or water-driven rope or wire winch, gravity, pneumatics, gas turbines and batteries. Train tracks usually consist of two running rails, sometimes supplemented by additional rails such as electric conducting rails and rack rails, with a limited number of monorails and maglev guideways in the mix.

72. Writing Writing is a medium of human communication that represents language and emotion with signs and symbols. In most languages, writing is a complement to speech or spoken language. Writing is not a language, but a tool developed by human society. Within a language system, writing relies on many of the same structures as speech, such as vocabulary, grammar, and semantics, with the added dependency of a system of signs or symbols. Motivations for writing include publication, storytelling, correspondence and diary. Writing has been instrumental in keeping history, maintaining culture, dissemination of knowledge through the media and the formation of legal systems. As human societies emerged, the development of writing was driven by pragmatic exigencies such as exchanging information, maintaining financial accounts, codifying laws and recording history.

73. Compass A compass is an instrument used for navigation and orientation that shows direction relative to the geographic cardinal directions (or points). Usually, a diagram called a compass rose shows the directions north, south, east, and west on the compass face as abbreviated initials. When the compass is used, the rose can be aligned with the corresponding geographic directions; for example, the “N” mark on the rose really points northward. Compasses often display markings for angles in degrees in addition to (or sometimes instead of) the rose. North corresponds to 0, and the angles increase clockwise, so east is 90 degrees, south is 180, and west is 270. These numbers allow the compass to show azimuths or bearings, which are commonly stated in this notation.

74. Morse code/telegraph
Morse code is a method of transmitting text information as a series of on- off tones, lights, or clicks that can be directly understood by a skilled listener or observer without special equipment.

telegraph An electrical telegraph is a telegraph that uses electrical signals, usually conveyed via dedicated telecommunication lines or radio. The electrical telegraph, or more commonly just telegraph, superseded optical semaphore telegraph systems,

75. fire

76. Wheel

77. Concrete

78. Nails

79. Tools A tool is any physical item that can be used to achieve a goal, especially if the item is not consumed in the process. The knowledge of constructing, obtaining and using tools is technology.

80. Steel The steel cable of a colliery winding tower
Steel is an alloy of iron and other elements, primarily carbon. Because of its high tensile strength and low cost, it is a major component in buildings, infrastructure, tools, ships, automobiles, machines, appliances, and weapons.

81. petrol/gasoline Gasoline or gas for short (American English), or petrol (British English), is a transparent, petroleum-derived liquid that is used primarily as a fuel in internal combustion engines. It consists mostly of organic compounds obtained by the fractional distillation of petroleum, enhanced with a variety of additives.

82. Air conditioning Air conditioning (often referred to as AC, A.C., or A/C) is the process of removing or adding heat from/to a space, thus cooling or heating the space’s average temperature.
Air conditioning can be used in both domestic and commercial environments. This process is most commonly used to achieve a more comfortable interior environment, typically for humans or animals.

83. refrigerator A refrigerator (colloquially fridge or fridgefreezer in the UK) is a popular household appliance that consists of a thermally insulated compartment and a heat pump (mechanical, electronic or chemical) that transfers heat from the inside of the fridge to its external environment so that the inside of the fridge is cooled to a temperature below the ambient temperature of the room. Refrigeration is an essential food storage technique in developed countries.

84. Printing press A printing press is a device for applying pressure to an inked surface resting upon a print medium (such as paper or cloth), thereby transferring the ink. Typically used for texts, the invention and spread of the printing press was one of the most influential events in the second millennium.

85. Battery A battery converts chemical energy into electrical energy by a chemical reaction. Usually the chemicals are kept inside the battery. It is used in a circuit to power other components. A battery produces direct current (DC) electricity (electricity that flows in one direction, and does not switch back and forth). Using the electricity from an outlet in a building is cheaper and more efficient, but a battery can provide electricity in areas that do not have electric power distribution. It is also useful for things that move, such as electric vehicles and mobile phones.

86. a/c and d/c current

Alternating current (AC) is an electric current which periodically reverses direction, in contrast to direct current (DC) which flows only in one direction.

Alternating current is the form in which electric power is delivered to businesses and residences, and it is the form of electrical energy that consumers typically use when they plug kitchen appliances, televisions and electric lamps into a wall socket. A common source of DC power is a battery cell in a flashlight. Direct current

Direct current (DC) is the unidirectional flow of electric charge. A battery is a good example of a DC power supply. Direct current may flow in a conductor such as a wire, but can also flow through semiconductors, insulators, or even through a vacuum as in electron or ion beams. The electric current flows in a constant direction, distinguishing it from alternating current (AC).

87. Electric motor An electric motor is an electrical machine that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. The reverse of this is the conversion of mechanical energy into electrical energy and is done by an electric generator, and generators and motors have much in common. Most electric motors operate through the interaction between an electric motor’s magnetic field and winding currents to generate force. In certain applications, such as in regenerative braking with traction motors in the transportation industry, electric motors can also be used in reverse as generators to convert mechanical energy into electric power. Found in applications as diverse as industrial fans, blowers and pumps, machine tools, household appliances, power tools, and disk drives, electric motors can be powered by direct current (DC) sources, such as from batteries, motor vehicles or rectifiers, or by alternating current (AC) sources, such as from the power grid, inverters or generators.

88. Electromagnet An electromagnet is a type of magnet in which the magnetic field is produced by an electric current. The magnetic field disappears when the current is turned off. Electromagnets usually consist of insulated wire wound into a coil. Electromagnets are widely used as components of other electrical devices, such as motors, generators, relays, loudspeakers, hard disks, MRI machines, scientific instruments, and magnetic separation equipment. Electromagnets are also employed in industry for picking up and moving heavy iron objects such as scrap iron and steel.

89. Mig23 jet

The Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-23 (Russian: Микоян и Гуревич МиГ-23; NATO reporting name: Flogger) is a variable-geometry fighter aircraft, designed by the Mikoyan-Gurevich design bureau in the Soviet Union. It is considered to belong to the Soviet third-generation jet fighter category, along with similarly aged Soviet fighters such as the MiG-25 “Foxbat”.

90. F4 Phantom jet

The McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II is a tandem two-seat, twin- engine, all-weather, long-range supersonic jet interceptor and fighter- bomber originally developed for the United States Navy by McDonnell Aircraft.[2] It first entered service in 1960 with the U.S. Navy. Proving highly adaptable, it was also adopted by the U.S. Marine Corps and the U.S. Air Force, and by the mid-1960s had become a major part of their air wings. The Phantom is a large fighter with a top speed of over Mach 2.2. It can carry more than 18,000 pounds (8,400 kg) of weapons on nine external hardpoints, including air-to-air missiles, air-to-ground missiles, and various bombs. The F-4, like other interceptors of its time, was designed without an internal cannon. Later models incorporated an M61 Vulcan rotary cannon. Beginning in 1959, it set 15 world records for in-flight performance, including an absolute speed record, and an absolute altitude record. The F-4 was used extensively during the Vietnam War. It served as the principal air superiority fighter for both the Navy and Air Force, and became important in the ground-attack and aerial reconnaissance roles late in the war. The Phantom has the distinction of being the last U.S. fighter flown by pilots who attained ace status in the 20th century.

91. Blackjack bomber Tupolev Tu-160

Tu-160 Beliy Lebed 

The Tupolev Tu-160 Beliy Lebed (or White Swan, Russian: Туполев Ту-160 Белый лебедь, NATO reporting name: Blackjack) is a supersonic, variable-sweep wing heavy strategic bomber designed by the Tupolev Design Bureau in the Soviet Union. It is the largest and heaviest Mach 2+ supersonic aircraft ever built and second only to the comparable XB-70 Valkyrie in overall length. It is the largest and heaviest combat aircraft, the fastest bomber currently in use, and is the largest and heaviest variable- sweep wing airplane ever flown. Entering service in 1987, the Tu-160 was the last strategic bomber designed for the Soviet Union. As of 2016, the Russian Air Force, Long Range Aviation branch has 16 aircraft remaining, with fewer being airworthy and in service. The Tu-160 active fleet has been undergoing upgrades to electronics systems since the early 2000s. The Tu-160M modernisation programme has begun with the first updated aircraft delivered in December 2014.

92. B1 bomber

The Rockwell B-1 Lancer is a supersonic variable-sweep wing, heavy bomber used by the United States Air Force (USAF). It is commonly called the “Bone” (from “B-One”). It is one of three strategic bombers in the USAF fleet as of 2017, the other two being the B-2 Spirit “Stealth Bomber”, and the B-52 Stratofortress.

93. F111 jet

General Dynamics F-111 Aardvark

F-111 Aardvark
A F-111 during an air-to-air refueling mission over the North Sea.
Role Interdictor, fighter-bomber, and strategic bomber
National origin United States
Manufacturer General Dynamics
First flight 21 December 1964
Introduction 18 July 1967
Retired USAF: F-111F, 1996; EF-111A, 1998

RAAF: F-111C, 2010

Status Retired
Primary users United States Air Force (USAF)

Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF)

Number built 563[1]
Unit cost F-111F: US$10.3 million (flyaway cost in 1973)
Variants General Dynamics–Grumman F-111B

General Dynamics F-111C

General Dynamics–Grumman EF-111A Raven

General Dynamics F-111K

The General Dynamics F-111 Aardvark was a supersonic, medium-range interdictor and tactical attack aircraft that also filled the roles of strategic nuclear bomber, aerial reconnaissance, and electronic-warfare aircraft in its various versions. Developed in the 1960s by General Dynamics, it first entered service in 1967 with the United States Air Force. The Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) also ordered the type and began operating F-111Cs in 1973.

94. F104 jet

Lockheed F-104 Starfighter

F-104 Starfighter
A U.S. Air Force F-104 Starfighter
Role Interceptor aircraft, fighter-bomber
National origin United States
Manufacturer Lockheed
First flight 17 February 1956 (YF-104A)
Introduction 20 February 1958
Retired 31 October 2004 (Italy)
Status Retired, except for private operators
Primary users United States Air Force

German Air Force

Japan Air Self-Defense Force

Turkish Air Force

Number built 2,578
Unit cost US$1.42 million (F-104G)
Developed from Lockheed XF-104
Variants Lockheed NF-104A

Canadair CF-104

Aeritalia F-104S

Developed into Lockheed CL-1200/X-27

Lockheed CL-288

The Lockheed F-104 Starfighter is a single-engine, supersonic interceptor aircraft which later became widely used as an attack aircraft. It was originally developed by Lockheed for the United States Air Force (USAF), but became widely used by US Allies around the world, and produced by several other NATO nations. One of the Century Series of fighter aircraft, it was operated by the air forces of more than a dozen nations from 1958 to 2004. Its design team was led by Kelly Johnson, who contributed to the development of the Lockheed P-38 Lightning, Lockheed U-2, Lockheed SR-71 Blackbird and other Lockheed aircraft.

The F-104 set numerous world records, including both airspeed and altitude records. Its success was marred by the Lockheed bribery scandals, in which Lockheed had given bribes to a considerable number of political and military figures in various nations in order to influence their judgment and secure several purchase contracts; this caused considerable political controversy in Europe and Japan.

95. F105 jet

F-105 Thunderchief
A Republic F-105D Thunderchief in flight with a full bomb load of sixteen 750 lb (340 kg) bombs on its five hardpoints.
Role Fighter-bomber
National origin United States
Manufacturer Republic Aviation
First flight 22 October 1955
Introduction 27 May 1958
Retired 25 February 1984
Primary user United States Air Force
Produced 1955–1964
Number built 833
Unit cost US$2.14 million (F-105D, in 1960 dollars)

The Republic F-105 Thunderchief was a supersonic fighter-bomber used by the United States Air Force. The Mach 2 capable F-105 conducted the majority of strike bombing missions during the early years of the Vietnam War; it was the only U.S. aircraft to have been removed from combat due to high loss rates. Originally designed as a single-seat, nuclear-attack aircraft, a two-seat Wild Weasel version was later developed for the specialized Suppression of Enemy Air Defenses (SEAD) role against surface-to-air missile sites. The F-105 was commonly known as the “Thud” by its crews.

96. Supersonic transport jet supersonic transport (SST) is a civilian supersonic aircraft designed to transport passengers at speeds greater than the speed of sound. To date, the only SSTs to see regular service have been Concorde and the Tupolev Tu-144. The last passenger flight of the Tu-144 was in June 1978 and it was last flown in 1999 by NASA. Concorde’s last commercial flight was in October 2003. The Concorde supersonic transport had an ogival delta wing, a slender fuselage and four underslung Rolls-Royce/Snecma Olympus 593 engines.

The Tupolev Tu-144 was the first SST to enter service and the first to leave it. Only 55 passenger flights were carried out before service ended due to safety concerns. A small number of cargo and test flights were also carried out after its retirement.

97. Cruise missile A cruise missile is a guided missile used against terrestrial targets that remains in the atmosphere and flies the major portion of its flight path at approximately constant speed. Cruise missiles are designed to deliver a large warhead over long distances with high precision. Modern cruise missiles are capable of traveling at supersonic or high subsonic speeds, are self-navigating, and are able to fly on a non-ballistic, extremely low-altitude trajectory.

98. Intercontinental ballistic missiles (i think it is an amazing feat of science and technology to build these, and that they can be used for defense, but it is a shame that they can cause mass death.

An intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) is a guided ballistic missile with a minimum range of 5,500 kilometres (3,400 mi)[1] primarily designed for nuclear weapons delivery (delivering one or more thermonuclear warheads). Similarly, conventional, chemical, and biological weapons can also be delivered with varying effectiveness, but have never been deployed on ICBMs. Most modern designs support multiple independently targetable reentry vehicles (MIRVs), allowing a single missile to carry several warheads, each of which can strike a different target.

99. Ballistic submarines The Ohio class of nuclear-powered submarines is currently used by the United States Navy. The navy has 18 Ohio-class submarines: 14 ballistic missile submarines (SSBN) and four that were later converted to guided-missile submarines (SSGN). The Ohio class was named after the lead submarine of this class, USS Ohio. The 14 Trident II SSBNs together carry about half of U.S. active strategic thermonuclear warheads. Although the Trident missiles have no preset targets when the submarines go on patrol, they can be given targets quickly using secure and constant radio communications links, including very low frequency systems. All the Ohio-class submarines, except for USS Henry M. Jackson, are named for U.S. states, which U.S. Navy tradition had previously reserved for battleships and cruisers. The Ohio-class boats are the largest submarines ever built for the U.S. Navy. Two Russian Navy classes have larger total displacements: the Soviet-designed Typhoon-class submarines have more than twice the total displacement, and Russia‘s Borei-class submarines have roughly 25% greater displacement, but the Ohio-class boats carry more missiles than either: 24 Trident missiles apiece, versus 16 by the Borei class (20 by the Borei II) and 20 by the Typhoon class.

USS George Washington (SSBN-598) the lead boat of US Navy’s first class of Fleet Ballistic Missile submarines (SSBN). George Washington was the first operational nuclear-powered multi-missile strategic deterrence asset fielded by any navy.

100. Cathedrals

A cathedral is a Christian church which contains the seat of a bishop, thus serving as the central church of a diocese, conference, or episcopate.  The counterpart term for such a church in German is Dom from Latin domus ecclesiae or domus episcopalis; also Italian Duomo, Dutch Domkerk and cognates in many other European languages. Churches with the function of “cathedral” are usually specific to those Christian denominations with an episcopal hierarchy, such as the Roman Catholic, Anglican, Orthodox, and some Lutheran and Methodist churches. Church buildings embodying the functions of a cathedral first appear in Italy, Gaul, Spain and North Africa in the 4th century, but cathedrals did not become universal within the Western Catholic Church until the 12th century, by which time they had developed architectural forms, institutional structures and legal identities distinct from parish churches, monastic churches and episcopal residences.

101. 3,600 foot tunnel through a mountain made in 530 BC

102. 770 foot bridge made in 1189 AD

103. Stonehenge Stonehenge is a prehistoric monument in Wiltshire, England, 2 miles (3 km) west of Amesbury. It consists of a ring of standing stones, with each standing stone around 13 feet (4.0 m) high, 7 feet (2.1 m) wide and weighing around 25 tons. The stones are set within earthworks in the middle of the most dense complex of Neolithic and Bronze Age monuments in England, including several hundred burial mounds. Archaeologists believe it was constructed from 3000 BC to 2000 BC. The surrounding circular earth bank and ditch, which constitute the earliest phase of the monument, have been dated to about 3100 BC. Radiocarbon dating suggests that the first bluestones were raised between 2400 and 2200 BC, although they may have been at the site as early as 3000 BC. Stonehenge was produced by a culture that left no written records. Many aspects of Stonehenge, such as how it was built and which purposes it was used for, remain subject to debate. A number of myths surround the stones. The site, specifically the great trilithon, the encompassing horseshoe arrangement of the five central trilithons, the heel stone, and the embanked avenue, are aligned to the sunset of the winter solstice and the opposing sunrise of the summer solstice. A natural landform at the monument’s location followed this line, and may have inspired its construction. The excavated remains of culled animal bones suggest that people may have gathered at the site for the winter rather than the summer. Further astronomical associations, and the precise astronomical significance of the site for its people, are a matter of speculation and debate.

104. Taj mahal

Taj Mahal The Taj Mahal (/ËŒtɑːdÊ’ məˈhɑːl/, more often /ˈtɑːʒ/; meaning Crown of the Palace) is an ivory-white marble mausoleum on the south bank of the Yamuna river in the Indian city of Agra. It was commissioned in 1632 by the Mughal emperor, Shah Jahan (reigned 1628–1658), to house the tomb of his favourite wife, Mumtaz Mahal. The tomb is the centrepiece of a 17- hectare (42-acre) complex, which includes a mosque and a guest house, and is set in formal gardens bounded on three sides by a crenellated wall. Construction of the mausoleum was essentially completed in 1643 but work continued on other phases of the project for another 10 years. The Taj Mahal complex is believed to have been completed in its entirety in 1653 at a cost estimated at the time to be around 32 million rupees, which in 2015 would be approximately 52.8 billion rupees (US$827 million). The construction project employed some 20,000 artisans under the guidance of a board of architects led by the court architect to the emperor, Ustad Ahmad Lahauri. The Taj Mahal was designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1983 for being “the jewel of Muslim art in India and one of the universally admired masterpieces of the world’s heritage”. Described by Nobel laureate Rabindranath Tagore as “the tear-drop on the cheek of time”, it is regarded by many as the best example of Mughal architecture and a symbol of India’s rich history. The Taj Mahal attracts 7–8 million visitors a year. In 2007, it was declared a winner of the New7Wonders of the World (2000–2007) initiative. The Taj Mahal was commissioned by Shah Jahan in 1631, to be built in the memory of his wife Mumtaz Mahal, a Persian princess who died giving birth to their 14th child, Gauhara Begum. Construction of the Taj Mahal began in 1632. The imperial court documenting Shah Jahan’s grief after the death of Mumtaz Mahal illustrate the love story held as the inspiration for Taj Mahal. The principal mausoleum was completed in 1643 and the surrounding buildings and garden were finished about five years later.

105. 7 wonders of the world

The classic seven wonders were: 

Colossus of Rhodes.

Great Pyramid of Giza.

Hanging Gardens of Babylon.

Lighthouse of Alexandria.

Mausoleum at Halicarnassus.

Statue of Zeus at Olympia.

Temple of Artemis at Ephesus.

106. contraceptives/birth control Birth control, also known as contraception and fertility control, is a method or device used to prevent pregnancy. Birth control has been used since ancient times, but effective and safe methods of birth control only became available in the 20th century. Planning, making available, and using birth control is called family planning. Some cultures limit or discourage access to birth control because they consider it to be morally, religiously, or politically undesirable.

107. Bank notes A banknote (often known as a bill, paper money, or simply a note) is a type of negotiable instrument known as a promissory note, made by a bank, payable to the bearer on demand.

108. Credit cards

Visa and MasterCard are the two most prominent payment processors for credit cards. A credit card is a payment card issued to users (cardholders) to enable the cardholder to pay a merchant for goods and services, based on the cardholder’s promise to the card issuer to pay them for the amounts so paid plus other agreed charges. The card issuer (usually a bank) creates a revolving account and grants a line of credit to the cardholder, from which the cardholder can borrow money for payment to a merchant or as a cash advance.

109. ATMs An automated teller machine (ATM) is an electronic telecommunications device that enables customers of financial institutions to perform financial transactions, such as cash withdrawals, deposits, transfer funds, or obtaining account information, at any time and without the need for direct interaction with bank staff. ATMs are known by a variety of names, including automatic teller machine in the United States (ATM, American, British, Australian, Malaysian, South African, Singaporean, Indian, Maldivian, Hiberno, Philippines and Sri Lankan English), often redundantly ATM machine, automated banking machine (ABM, Canadian English), cash point (British English), cashline, minibank, cash machine, tyme machine, cash dispenser, bankomat or bancomat. Many ATMs have a sign above them, indicating the name of the bank or organisation that owns the ATM, and possibly including the networks to which it can connect. In Canada, ABM that are not operated by a financial institution are known as “white-label ABMs”.According to the ATM Industry Association (ATMIA), there are now close to 3.5 million ATMs installed worldwide. However, the use of ATMs is gradually declining – most notably in retail precincts.

110. Stealth technology Stealth technology also termed LO technology (low observable technology) is a sub-discipline of military tactics and passive electronic countermeasures, which cover a range of techniques used with personnel, aircraft, ships, submarines, missiles and satellites to make them less visible (ideally invisible) to radar, infrared, sonar and other detection methods. It corresponds to military camouflage for these parts of the electromagnetic spectrum (Multi-spectral camouflage).

111. Public key cryptography Public key cryptography, or asymmetrical cryptography, is any cryptographic system that uses pairs of keys: public keys which may be disseminated widely, and private keys which are known only to the owner. This accomplishes two functions: authentication, where the public key verifies a holder of the paired private key sent the message, and encryption, where only the paired private key holder can decrypt the message encrypted with the public key. In a public key encryption system, any person can encrypt a message using the receiver’s public key. That encrypted message can only be decrypted with the receiver’s private key. To be practical, the generation of a public and private key -pair must be computationally economical. The strength of a public key cryptography system relies on the computational effort (work factor in cryptography) required to find the private key from its paired public key. If so, effective security only requires keeping the private key private; the public key can be openly distributed without compromising security. Public key cryptography systems often rely on cryptographic algorithms based on mathematical problems that currently admit no efficient solution  particularly those inherent in certain integer factorization, discrete logarithm, and elliptic curve relationships. Public key algorithms, unlike symmetric key algorithms, do not require a secure channel for the initial exchange of one (or more) secret keys between the parties. Because of the computational complexity of asymmetric encryption, it is usually used only for small blocks of data, typically the transfer of a symmetric encryption key (e.g. a session key). This symmetric key is then used to encrypt the rest of the potentially long message sequence. The symmetric encryption/decryption is based on simpler algorithms and is much faster. In a public key signature system, a person can combine a message with a private key to create a short digital signature on the message. Anyone with the corresponding public key can combine a message, a putative digital signature on it, and the known public key to verify whether the signature was valid  made by the owner of the corresponding private key. Changing the message, even replacing a single letter, will cause verification to fail: in a secure signature system, it is computationally infeasible for anyone who does not know the private key to deduce it from the public key or from any number of signatures, or to find a valid signature on any message for which a signature has not hitherto been seen. Thus the authenticity of a message can be demonstrated by the signature, provided the owner of the private key keeps the private key secret. Public key algorithms are fundamental security ingredients in cryptosystems, applications and protocols. They underpin various Internet standards, such as Transport Layer Security (TLS), S/MIME, PGP, and GPG. Some public key algorithms provide key distribution and secrecy (e.g., Diffie–Hellman key exchange), some provide digital signatures (e.g., Digital Signature Algorithm), and some provide both (e.g., RSA).

Public key cryptography finds application in, among others, the information technology security discipline, information security. Information security (IS) is concerned with all aspects of protecting electronic information assets against security threats. Public key cryptography is used as a method of assuring the confidentiality, authenticity and non-repudiability of electronic communications and data storage.

112. Atomic and hydrogen bombs (i think they are great feats of scientific achievement, but that is all only.)—A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb). Both bomb types release large quantities of energy from relatively small amounts of matter. The first test of a fission (“atomic”) bomb released an amount of energy approximately equal to 20,000 tons of TNT (84 TJ). The first thermonuclear (“hydrogen”) bomb test released energy approximately equal to 10 million tons of TNT (42 PJ). A thermonuclear weapon weighing little more than 2,400 pounds (1,100 kg) can release energy equal to more than 1.2 million tons of TNT (5.0 PJ). A nuclear device no larger than traditional bombs can devastate an entire city by blast, fire, and radiation. Since they are weapons of mass destruction, the proliferation of nuclear weapons is a focus of international relations policy. Nuclear weapons have been used twice in war, both times by the United States against Japan near the end of World War II. On August 6, 1945, the U.S. Army Air Forces detonated a uranium gun-type fission bomb nicknamed “Little Boy” over the Japanese city of Hiroshima; three days later, on August 9, the U.S. Army Air Forces detonated a plutonium implosion-type fission bomb nicknamed “Fat Man” over the Japanese city of Nagasaki. These bombings resulted in the deaths of approximately 200,000 civilians and military personnel from injuries sustained from the explosions. The ethics of these bombings and their role in Japan’s surrender are subjects of debate. Since the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, nuclear weapons have been detonated over two thousand times for testing and demonstration. Only a few nations possess such weapons or are suspected of seeking them. The only countries known to have detonated nuclear weapons and acknowledge possessing them—are (chronologically by date of first test) the United States, the Soviet Union (succeeded as a nuclear power by Russia), the United Kingdom, France, China, India, Pakistan, and North Korea. Israel is believed to possess nuclear weapons, though, in a policy of deliberate ambiguity, it does not acknowledge having them. Germany, Italy, Turkey, Belgium and the Netherlands are nuclear weapons sharing states. South Africa is the only country to have independently developed and then renounced and dismantled its nuclear weapons. The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons aims to reduce the spread of nuclear weapons, but its effectiveness has been questioned, and political tensions remained high in the 1970s and 1980s. Modernization of weapons continues to this day.

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