science facts

CONTENTS–

1opening science facts

2. math facts

3. physics facts

4. chemistry facts

5. astronomy facts

6. space science facts

OPENING SCIENCE FACTS–

If an inch were equal to an average human lifetime, the distance of the lifetime of a rather short lived star (100 million years) would be about 21 miles long compared to our 1 inch lifespan length.

If the United States were a mile across, the US Capitol would be 1 inch tall and people would be the size of grains of sand.

If an atom’s size were doubled, then that size were doubled, and you kept doubling the resultant size, in 123 of these doublings, the final size would be as big as our universe.

100 billion, billion, billion times more than the number of grains of sand that would fill the universe—that is the number is all the possible chess games if each grain of sand were to represent one of the possible chess games.

here is my incomplete and feeble attempt to describe infinity using our immortal ness as souls. let us say the each atom were equal to a million years. there are 2.4 billion of then which spans 1 inch. an 1 inch sphere of atoms would be equivalent to a 500 mile ball of grains of sand where each grain of sand were an atom. there are 1.6 billion inches going around the earth. there are a billion times the distance to go around the earth to make it to the nearest star. and there are 21.6 billion distances to the nearest star to span the distance across the universe. if we add up all of the total of those millions of years, our souls and consciousnesses will have continued experiencing life of some kind during all that time. and that total time is just the beginning and really like being equal to zero time because eternity never ends. we will always be alive and conscious because we are immortal.

To imagine how fast the speed of light is, if a grain of sand were as big as a mile, then the speed of light would pass by it at 140 miles per hour.

If 4,008 miles were equal to an inch then, then an inch in that 4,008 miles would be the size of an atom.

10 million atoms laid end to end span 1 millimeter. If that millimeter were 6 miles long, a millimeter of that would be the size of an atom.

If a millimeter were equal to 6.2 miles, then a real millimeter would be the size of an atom.

If an inch were equal to 4,000 miles, then a smoke particle would be 830 feet in diameter.

If a smoke particle were 1 mile big, an atom’s size would be about .528 inches big.

It takes 10,000 atoms to go from one end of a smoke particle to the other end.

If the size of an atom were equal to an inch, then a smoke particle would be 1.6 miles big.

If an atom were 1 inch in diameter, then a grain of sand would be 32 miles big.

525 billion atoms make up a smoke particle burned from wood.

if a mile were to equal to the size of a grain of sand, then one wouldneed to go around the earth 637 times to equal the distance to the nearest star.

if the earth sun distance were equal to the size of a grain of sand, then the nearest star would be almost a football’s field length away. (would be 98 yards away).

if a year were equal to a grain of sand, then 3,045 miles of them would equal how long the universe has existed (14.7 billion years). a human lifetime is equal to an inch’s length of 1 year grains of sand.

If 3 inches represented a human lifetime, then a rather short lived star’s lifetime length would be about a 60 mile long lifetime.

if the earth were the size of a grain of sand, then the nearest star would be 653 miles away.

an 11.93 mile sphere would contain all the stars in the universe if each starwas the size of a grain of sand.

600,000 stars are born into the universe every second. that is 52 billion stars a day. About 190 are born in our galaxy every year, or 1 every 2 days.

it has been estimated that 4.6 supernovas explode in a galaxy per century. this means that the number of them that explode in the universe is about 146 every second.

if all the stars that make up the universe were all divided so that each person on

the earth would each have an equal number of them, and if each star were the size of

a grain of sand, then each person would have a sphere of stars almost 71 feet big.

if the earth were 1 foot big, then the sun would be 109 feet big, a supergiant star would be 20 miles big, and the largest possible star would be 50 miles big.

it an inch were the distance to the nearest star, that the distance to the edge of the universe would be the distance around the earth 6 times.

There are over a million times more stars in the universe than all the grains of sand on earth.

Over 30 (31.7) supernovas explode every second in the universe.

100 billion, billion, billion times the number of grains of sand that would fill the universe—that number is all the possible chess games possible if each grain of sand were to represent one of the possible chess games.

about 500 million supernovas have exploded in our galaxy since it formed almost 15 billion years ago.

If an inch were equal to an average human lifetime, the distance of the lifetime of a rather short lives star (100 million years) would be about 21 miles.

If an inch were equal to a year, the well known star Betelgeuse’s age of 8.5 million years converted into distance would be 114 miles long. If Betelgeuse’s lifetime of 114 miles were put into a further inch, then the very longest star’s lifetime (almost 7.7 trillion years long) would be equal to almost 14.3 miles distance compared to Betelgeuse’s current age of 8.5 million years that is equal to an inch.

On a 6.2 mile diameter neutron star, a teaspoon of it would weigh 2.499 billion tons.

If BBs were laid end to end until they reached the nearest star, if they were gathered together into a giant ball, this ball would be 4.19 miles big.

For a very short lived star like Betelgeuse with a lifespan of 8 million years, if an inch were equal to a year’s time, then Betelgeuse’s lifetime length would be 1,262.63 miles long. If a person lives 75 years and an inch equals a year, then Betelgeuse’s length lifetime is 94,696.97 miles, or a distance of 11.84 times around the earth. Betelgeuse will die as a supernova explosion in up to 100,000 years from now. Equated to a length for that 100,000 years, the length would be 1 mile (3,053.36 feet long) when 1 inch is equal to a year.

I have calculated optimistic and conservative estimates on how fast spacecraft can travel at 3 points in time:

**conservative estimates**: **2035AD**-23 miles per second; **2200AD**-200 miles per second;**2265AD **(Star Trek’s time)-29% of the speed of light

**optimistic estimates**: **2035AD**-185 miles per second; **2200AD**-8,000 miles per second (4.29% of the speed of light); **2265AD**-99.75% of the speed of light.

there are as many atoms in a grain of sand as there are grains of sand in a sphere 100 mile large.

**SCIENCE FACTS MATH**

1. A one bedroom apartment can hold about 4.5 trillion grains of sand. That is 4.5 times the number of stars in our galaxy. All the stars in our universe are 10 billion times greater than 4.5 trillion grains of sand. All the stars in the universe would make be equivalent to stars equaling the size of grains of sand being a sphere 26 miles in diameter. The size of the number of stars in our galaxy, if each star were the size of a grain of sand, would be equivalent to a sphere 5 feet 4.5 inches in diameter.

2. If you were to keep typing in a randomly until you correctly typed the 1st verse of psalms 1–“happy are those who do not follow the advice of the wicked” , the statistical probability of the time it would take you to type it correctly if each try took 20 seconds would take 2.862^18 tries and the time to type the phrase correctly would be a little over 4.5 billion years. If we randomly hit keys on a writing keyboard, to finally write the 23rd psalm of the Bible, it would take 10^2,026 years, and to type John Doe would take over 330 years. To reproduce Shakespeares works by randomly pressing keys on a keyboard (the number of tries necessary till his books got typed correctly would take over 10^5,000,000 years. (Imagine the length of time it would take to type everything that has ever been printed. The time to type this is a drop in the bucket compared to how long we will exist. As immortal souls, we will exist forever.

3. If the United States were a mile across, the US Capitol would be 1 inch tall and people would be the size of grains of sand.

4. Bhaskara 2 (Bhaskara Acharya), an Indian man of science, calculated the time it would take the Earth to go around the Sun in the 12th century to an accuracy of 9 decimal places. That is less than a third of a second off the real time (.284 seconds off).

5. If an atom’s size were doubled, then that size were doubled, and you kept doubling the resultant size, in 123 of these doublings, the final size would be as big as our universe.

6. Here is a math fact that deals with largeness–if we had a drop of water, then added 1/2 of a drop of water to the drop, then added 1/3 of a drop to the previous 2 amounts of water, then added 1/4, 1/5/ 1/6,….. and keep adding up in this pattern water indefinitely, the resulting amount of water would fill up not only a lake for example, or an ocean, or even the whole earth’s volume; not even the whole universe, but the amount of water resulting from adding these small amounts of water together indefinitely would be bigger than anything that could possibly be, and in fact, the resulting amount of water would only get bigger and bigger and never stop getting bigger. The amount of water which is the result is equal to- Ln(drops)=amount of water Natural logarithm(number of drops added together)=amount of water. The number of drops to make a given amount of water is equal to Exponential(amount of water in number of drops)=number of smaller and smaller drops of water added together.

7. Here is an easy to understand explanation of the adding up drops of water which get smaller and smaller, and the result is that the total amount of water that gets bigger and bigger, enough to fill the entire universe (and a proof for this). I want to show you how starting with one raindrop, and adding lesser and lesser parts of the raindrops all together, you can fill the entire universe or any conceivable size of anything with water from the raindrops that are added together. This fact may be hard to believe but it is true.

The harmonic series from math is used to explain how this is done. We start with one raindrop, add to that 1/2 of a raindrop, add to those 1/3 of a raindrop, then add 1/4, 1/5, and keep adding lesser and lesser amounts of raindrops. Here is an easy to understand proof of this—

We start with 1 drop of water. We need to add up the next 3 terms (1/2, 1/3, 1/4) together in the harmonic series to equal another 1 drop, so we have this 1 added to the first drop to equal 2 drops. Next, we add the next 13 terms together and this also is equal to 1 drop, adding this 1 to the previous 2 drops to equal 3 drops. To equal 4 drops. we need to add 20 drops, and again, this equals 1 and we add this drop to the previous 3 drops to equal 4 drops. We keep adding successively more of the smaller drops together to equal another 1, and the result is always adding one drop to the drops before it, and the number resulting gets bigger, so the amount of water keeps increasing. Now, since the harmonic series has an infinite number of terms terms, we can keep keep adding successively more and more drops together to equal another drop. And since this goes on forever, the number of drops will keep increasing forever too, and the resulting amount of water will become infinitely large.

To accumulate 10 drops of water would take a little over 22,000 of the smaller drops added together. For 100 drops of water to accumulate, we would need to add together 2.69^43 smaller drops of water, which is an extremely large number of small drop. If the number of smaller drops were equal to the number of atoms that were packed tightly together to fill the universe, (2.912*10^114 atoms), then the amount of water accumulated would only be 263.57 drops. To fill a glass of water would take 2×10^2,044 smaller drops, a bathtub would take 3.9×10^3,845,294 drops, and finally to fill the universe to require 8.7×10^221,932,935 drops. The harmonic series, which models this, says that the increase will never stop. i don’t understand what infinity is other than it is never ending. To me, it means it keeps going on and on and never stops going on. Maybe some very smart and creative people will be able to help us understand infinity better in the future. Our soul essences will experience what infinity is really like because they will live forever. As immortal souls, we will be alive and conscious for all that time, and that will only be the beginning, because we will always BE without time ending. So using the harmonic series, i wanted to present this science fact.

8. If one stirs a cup of coffee, there will always be some part of the coffee in the same place after stirring as it was before stirring it.

9. 10 to the 90th power are the number of grains of sand packed together which would fill the universe, 10 to the 100th power of hydrogen atoms it would take to fill the universe, and 10 to the 113th power the number of protons would be needed to fill up the universe. A googol (10 to the 100th power) number of grains of sand would fill up 10 billion universes.

10. 107 billion people have lived on earth during recorded history.

11. Here is a very interesting math fact called the Riemann’s rearrangement theorem. Take the following numbers (which is called a series that goes on forever)-

1-1/2+1/3-1/4+1/5-1/6+1/7-1/8+1/9-1/10……

The Riemann’s rearrangement theorem says that we can rearrange these numbers in any order we want to, and by doing this, we can make an arrangement so that the total gets big up to infinity, or we can rearrange them so that the result adds up to negative infinity, and the numbers can be rearranged to add up to any number possible. This is the theorem proved by Bernhard Riemann, who lived from 1826-1866, and he was a very well known an accomplished mathematician.

12. An inch’s length can be divided up into more parts than all the counting numbers from 1 to infinity.

13. How big is a googol (10^100)? We would need over 10,000,000,000 times the number of grains of sand it takes to fill the universe with to equal a googol.

14. To get an idea of big numbers: 1. A sphere 1 inch big would contain 8,580 millimeter, a 1 foot sphere would contain 14,826,667 millimeter, 1 yard 400,319,875.5 millimeters, 100 yards 3.2X10^15 millimeters, a mile 2.5X10^17 millimeters, 6.9 miles (the distance to my brother’s house) 7.17X10^20 millimeter, and if the Earth were filled with millimeters, there would contain 1.09X10^30 of them.

15. The number of people on Earth, if each one represented a grain of sand size, the size of a sphere for 7 billion people would be 2 feet 7.2 inches in diameter, and if each grain of sand were laid end to end, the grains of sand would stretch a distance of 1,447 miles.

16. Then number of possible chess games is 10^120.

17. If a person kept folding a piece of paper, it would take 27 folds and the paper folded would be 5 miles thick. For the thickness of the paper to be the thickness going across the United States would take 37 folds of the paper, for the distance to the moon would take 42 folds, for the distance to the Sun would require 51 fold, and to go from one end of the universe to the other would require 123 folds.

18. 100 billion, billion, billion times more than the number of grains of sand that would fill the universe—that is the number is all the possible chess games if each grain of sand were to represent one of the possible chess games.

19. Say we were to have a rope that went all the way around the world in contact with the Earth. By adding 6 feet 4 inches to the length of the rope, the rope going around the Earth would now be 12 inched above the ground all the way around the earth.

20. A curve of infinite length could be drawn inside a 2 dimensional square. The is called a Sierpinski curve.

21. If we were to count 1,2,3,4,5…forever, and also count 2,4,6,8…forever, the number of numbers in each set of numbers would be of equal magnitude.

22. James clerk Maxwell, the well-know scotch physicist who formulated his 4 equations about electromagnetism, memorized the entire bible by the time he was 14 years old.

23. If an inch were equal to an average human lifetime, the distance of the lifetime of a rather short lived star (100 million years) would be about 21 miles long compared to our 1 inch lifespan length.

24. How do we measure the size of the Earth? Eratosthenes, over 2000 years ago, gave a very good approximation of the size of the Earth. He knew that at the summer solstice that the Sun shone directly into a well at Syene at noon. At the same time, in Alexandria, Egypt, approximately 488 miles due north of Syene, the angle of elevation (deviation of the Sun shining directly into the well/the angle of deviation) of the Sun’s rays was about 7.2 degrees. 360 degrees contains 50×7.2 degrees parts. Since the Earth is a circle, and since a circle contains 360 degrees, and since a circle is 50 times more than 7.2 degrees, we multiply the 488 miles by 50 and this equals 24,400 miles. This result has 98.3 precent accuracy for the circumference of the Earth.

25. The average gap between the 1st number (n) consecutive primes is approximately ln(n).

26. Transcendental numbers, (real or complex numbers not algebraic. (Examples- pi=3.14159265…, and ‘e;’), these numbers are by far the most numerous type of number.

27. The largest prime number known as of 1/25/13 contains 17,425,170 digits.

28. The series of the reciprocals of the primes is a series that diverges to infinity.

29. The largest prime gap between 2 prime numbers is 1.3002 x 10^16. The gap can be extended to 4 x 10^18 numbers between 2 prime numbers.

30. The monster group is a mind boggling snowflake with more than 10^53 symmetries that exists in a space of 196,884 dimensions.

31. It would take almost 2.5 X 10^72 atoms to fill the universe.

32. The number of primes up to a given number (n) is approximately equal to 1/Ln(n).

33. In a group consisting of 50 people, the chances of 2 of the people in that group who share a birthday is certain statistically.

34. Ever tried to comb a **hairy ball**? **Math** says you failed! whenever one attempts to comb a hairy ball flat, there will always be at least one tuft of hair at one point on the ball. This is the hairy ball theorem, which dictates also that, given at least some wind on **Earth**, **there must** at all times be a cyclone or anticyclone **somewhere**.

35. here is my incomplete and feeble attempt to describe infinity using our immortal ness as souls. let us say the each atom were equal to a million years. there are 2.4 billion of then which spans 1 inch. an 1 inch sphere of atoms would be equivalent to a 500 mile ball of grains of sand where each grain of sand were an atom. there are 1.6 billion inches going around the earth. there are a billion times the distance to go around the earth to make it to the nearest star. and there are 21.6 billion distances to the nearest star to span the distance across the universe. if we add up all of the total of those millions of years, our souls and consciousnesses will have continued experiencing life of some kind during all that time. and that total time is just the beginning and really like being equal to zero time because eternity never ends. we will always be alive and conscious because we are immortal.

36. there are an infinite number of infinities.

37. how big a ball of grains of sand would be needed to, if each of the grains of sand were laid end to end, to equal a length of 1,000 miles? a ball filled 7 feet 2.4 millimeters filled with grains of sand.

38. the probability of flipping a coin heads the first 10 times flips is .03976% chance, or 1/1024 of a probability that this will happen.

39. it would take you 14.6 trillion years until you breathed in the same molecule of air that your best friend had breathed out sometime in their past.

**PHYSICS FACTS **

** 1 To imagine how fast the speed of light is, if a grain of sand were as big as a mile, then the speed of light would pass by it at 140 miles per hour.**

** 2 For the Starship Enterprise to travel to the Moon in 3 seconds time would require the energy of 90 billion Saturn 5 launches, and it would require 80,000 tons of antimatter to do this.**

**3. The Sun puts out 196 times more energy per second than to accelerate the Star Trek Starship Enterprise to 1/2 the speed of light.**

**4. It would take 9,192 tons of antimatter to accelerate the starship Enterprise to 1/2 the speed of light, 22 grams of antimatter to accelerate 1 ton to 1/2 the speed of light, and takes one millionth of a gram of antimatter to go to Mars.**

**5. James Clerk Maxwell, a very successful physicist from the 19th century, calculated that on average, a molecule of air bumps into 8 billion other molecules every second. If an inch were equal to one of these collisions, then the number of collisions would be like going around the earth 125,984 times. When I first came across Maxwell’s calculated result, I though I would never be able to find out how he calculated this number of collisions. Then, one night, I went for a ride in my car and thought about how to calculate it myself. I found that it isn’t hard to calculate. Here is how I calculated it—there are 2.5 x 10^25 number of molecules of air in a cubic meter of air. I used the following formula to find the number of molecules of air spanning 1 meter: r=cube root(n x 3/4 x Pi). Radius in meters=cube root((number of air molecules x 3)/4 x Pi) and multiply this result by 2 to get the number of air molecules in a span of 1 meter, which equals 3.62 x 10^8 air molecules lined up in a meter’s length. Then, air molecules travel 486.5 meters per second at 72 degrees Fahrenheit temperature. So the last step to finding the number of collision an air molecules would be to multiply 3.62 x 10^8 molecules of air in a meter’s length by 486.5 meters per second that an air molecule travels in a second, and the answer to the number of collisions an air molecule in 1 second is 1.76 trillion of them. HOWEVER, this answer is incorrect, so the 2nd time I calculated to get the the number of collisions, I got 3.742 billion collisions. I calculated it by using the mean free path (distance between successive collisions) which is 1.3 x 10-7 meters as the distance between molecules of air. So, 486.5 meters/second (velocity of air molecules) divided by 1.3 x 10-7 meter (distance between collisions)=3.742 billion collision/second. My answer is different from James Clerk Maxwells because either the temperature he used for the air molecules causes the air molecules to vary and/or the proportion of the composition of the air elements was different from what I used to calculate my result (each elemental part of air travels at a different velocity than another element. i.e. nitrogen or oxygen). He got 8 billion, and I got 3.7 billion collisions. **

**6. An A bomb releases 8.36 X 10^13 joules of energy. Imagine that that energy were equal to a 2 millimeter sized sphere. Now, the Tunguska event which occurred in 1908 when a piece of a comet entered the Earth’s atmosphere and exploded there and flattened 770 square miles of forest area had energy equal to 8.36 X 10^16 joules. This amount of energy would be equivalent to an inch’s sphere compared to the earlier atom bomb sphere. The asteroid which crashed into the Earth 65 million years ago causing the extinction of the dinosaurs was equal to 8.36 X 10^22 joules, a million times more energy than Tunguska, and this would have a sphere equal to a foot in diameter. Next, a type 2 supernova explosion has an energy output of 10^44 joules, or 100 billion trillion times more than the asteroid event. This would equal a sphere 2,350 miles in diameter. Finally, we come to the energy released by a gamma ray burst, the greatest energy producer in our universe. These bursts release 8.8 X 10^47 joules of energy, which is almost 10,000 times more energy then a supernova explosion. The energy produced by a GRB would be equal to a sphere 22,140 miles in diameter. **

**7. If the USS Enterprise on the show Star Trek were to accelerate to 70% light speed, it would need over 60 million tones of antimatter to do it, and the energy needed would be about 1/100th of the Sun’s energy output per second. **

**8. For a 165 pound runner to run a 100 yard dash in 9.0 seconds, the amount of antimatter (anti-hydrogen) needed would be 1/2,114 billionth of a pound of it, or 128,500 billion antimatter atoms. **

**9. To launch the Saturn 5 rocket, the amount of antimatter need would be 17.155 grams, or .0377 pounds. This would require 10 trillion, trillion anti-hydrogen atoms. **

**10. How to weigh the Earth. I used a piece of granite in my calculation. Granite has a mass of 907 kilograms per cubic meter. When I multiplied the granite’s weight with the number of cubic meter that makes up the Earth’s volume (The formula is: volume=(4 x Pi x radius^3)/3). We will need the radius of the Earth which is 6,420,870 meter to be used to find to volume of the Earth. When this formula for volume is used and the radius of the Earth is plugged into it, the volume of the Earth comes out to be 1.1045 x 10^21 cubic meters. I multiplied this volume by the specific density of the granite rock of 907 kilograms/meter^3 and I arrived at an answer of 3.075575 x 10^24 kilograms for the Earth’s mass, which is 51.5% of the Earth’s actual mass of 5.972 x 10^24 mass. So I tired measuring the Earth’s weight again with a cubic meter of ordinary rock and i weighed it. I found that its weighs is approximately 3,000 kilograms. So it has a density of 3,000 kilograms/ meters^3. I again multiplied the volume of the Earth by the 3,000 kilograms/meter^3 of the ordinary rock and came up with 3.324 X 10^24 kilograms. But this answer is also too small by 44.34%. To be able to accurately weigh the Earth, i found that the Earth is made up of 35% iron, weighing 2,755.9 kilograms/ meter^3, 15% silicon at 379.89 kilograms/meter^3, 30% oxygen at .4287 kilograms/meter^3, 13% magnesium at 225.94 kilograms/ meter^3, and the remaining 7% of the Earth made up of the rest of the elements. I added together .35 x 2,755.9 kilos/meter^3 for iron, .15 x 379.89 kilos/meter^3 for silicon, .3 x .4287 kilos/meter^3 for oxygen,.13×225.94 kilos/meter^3 for magnesium, and .07 x 29,211.63 kilos/meter^3 for the rest of the makeup of the Earth’s mass. Multiply these results from the percentages of the masses, add them up, multiply that by the cubic volume of the Earth, I arrived at the correct mass of the Earth- 5.972 x 10^24 kilograms. **

**11. How does one know how fast the Earth orbits the Sun? The formula for determining orbital velocity is: velocity (meter/ second)=2 x pi x radius/time to complete one orbit. (V=2 x Pi x r/t). The distance from the Earth to the Sun is 150 billion meters, so that will be the radius used in this formula. The time to go around the Sun is 1 year, and that in seconds is 365.25 days x 24 hours x 60 minutes x 60 seconds equals 31,557,600 seconds. And Pi equals 3.14.So, 2 x 3.14 x 150,000,000,000/31,557,600=29,865.32 meters per second. That equates to 66,769.35 miles per hour, or 18.55 miles per second for the Earth’s orbital velocity around the Sun. **

**12. A top class sprinter who can run 28 miles per hour has the same kinetic energy as a car going at a speed of 6.2 miles per hour.**

13. if Planck’s length were equal to a millimeter’s length, then the size of an atom would be as big as a 60,000 light years large galaxy.

**CHEMISTRY FACTS **

1. If one were to keep doubling starting from the size of an atom it would take 123 times the doubling of them to result in the size of the universe.

2. There is an amino-acid compound which contain 3,600 letters in its name.

3. If 4,008 miles were equal to an inch then, then an inch in that 4,008 miles would be the size of an atom.

4. 10 million atoms laid end to end span 1 millimeter. If a millimeter were equal to 6.2 miles, then a real millimeter would be the size of an atom.

5. If an inch were equal to 4,000 miles, then a smoke particle would be 830 feet in diameter.

6. The number of hydrogen atoms it would take to fill a sphere as big as the universe (93 billion light years) would be 52.65 X 10^120 hydrogen atoms.

7. If a smoke particle were 1 mile big, an atom’s size would be about .528 inches big.

8. It takes 10,000 atoms to go from one end of a smoke particle to the other end.

9. If the size of an atom were equal to an inch, then a smoke particle would be 1.6 miles big.

10. A billion atoms would span a length 4 inches long.

11. If an atom were 1 inch in diameter, then a grain of sand would be 32 miles big.

12. Two million atoms span across a grain of sand.

13. The number of atoms that stretch across 1 inch are the same number of Earth diameters needed to reach the nearest star.

14. 6 trillion atoms laid side to side would span 4 miles. 6 trillion 4 miles distances would be needed to reach the nearest star.

15. 525 billion atoms make up a smoke particle burned from wood.

16. The number of atoms equaling the number of people on the Earth would amount to an object 1/41,67 millimeters large.

17. The most common molecule found in the universe is water. Hydrogen is the most common element, followed by Helium, then Oxygen.

18. There are thousands more organic compounds, compounds which contain carbon, than inorganic compounds, which do not contain carbon.

19. There is no more than 30 grams of the very rare element francium in the earth’s crust. A block of it would measure .85784 inches to a side and the number of atoms of francium it would be made up of would number 1.345 x 10^22 atoms. A mole of francium would measure 1.674 cubic inches.

20. It would take 10.66 billion lifetimes to breath in just one of the same molecules of air that another person breathed in in their normal length lifespan.

21. there are as many atoms in a grain of sand as there are grains of sand in a sphere 100 mile large.

ASTRONOMY FACTS

1. if a mile were to equal to the size of a grain of sand, then one would

need to go around the earth 637 times to equal the distance to the nearest

star.

2. if the sun were equal to 1 millimeter, then the nearest star would be

18 miles away.

3. if 80 miles of inches were put into an inch and we had 80 miles of those

inches, then the total number of inches, each equal to a mile, would be

the total number of miles/distance to the nearest star.

4. if 3,000 miles were equal to a grain of sand, then to get to the nearest star

would require 1,726 miles of those ‘3,000 mile’ grains of sand laid end to end.

5. if the earth sun distance were equal to the size of a grain of sand, then the

nearest star would be almost a football’s field length away.

(would be 98 yards away)

6. if a year were equal to a grain of sand, then 3,045 miles of them would

equal how long the universe has existed (14.7 billion years).

a human lifetime is equal to an inch’s length of 1 year grains of sand.

7. all the stars in our galaxy, if each were the size of a grain of sand and all

packed together, would make a sphere 6.3 feet in diameter. if each of these grains

of sand were laid end to end, they would stretch over 2.5 times around the earth.

i have read on a UFO site that there are 10^64 power number of universes.

if each of these universes were the size of a grain of sand and they were packed

tightly together, then a sphere that would result from this would be 554 trillion

miles in diameter. that is almost 100 light years big. and the UFO website said

that there is more beyond the 10^64 number of universes.

8. If 3 inches represented a human lifetime, then a rather short lived star’s lifetime length would be about a 60 mile long lifetime.

9. if the earth were the size of a grain of sand, then the nearest star would

be 653 miles away.

10 an 11.93 mile sphere would contain all the stars in the universe if each star

was the size of a grain of sand.

11. if one were to keep doubling starting from the size of an atom, it would

take 123 times the doubling to have the result the size of the universe.

12. a supernova of absolute magnitude -19.3, which is 4,492,352,164 times brighter

than the sun-if the sun’s brightness were equal to a millimeter, the supernova’s

brightness would be equal to 2,791 mile long of those millimeter suns.

13. the brightest supernova ever was as bright as 570 billion suns, 5.7 times brighter

than our galaxy.

14. bhaskara 2 (bhaskara acharya), an indian man, calculated the time it would take

the earth to go around the sun in the 12th century to an accuracy of 9 decimal

places. that is less than a third of a second off the real time (.284 seconds.)

15. if the earth were 16 inches big, the moon would be 40.2 feet away and be

4.36 inches big; the sun would be 145.22 feet big and be 2 miles 4963 feet away;

saturn would be 26.44 miles away; pluto would be 116.2 miles away; voyager 2

would be 388 miles away; the nearest star would be over 800,000 miles away; the

star betelguese would 29.64 miles big; the largest star would be 71.7 miles big;

the andromeda galaxy would be 18.7 billion miles big and 464 billion miles away;

and the edge of the universe would be 1,468 light years away. all this if the earth

were 16 inches big.

16. 600,000 stars are born into the universe every second. that is 52 billion stars

a day. About 190 are born in our galaxy every year, or 1 every 2 days.

17. 400AD. The Hindu cosmological time cycles explained in the *Surya Siddhanta*, give the average length of the sidereal year (the length of the Earth’s revolution around the Sun) as 365.2563627 days, which is only 1.4 seconds longer than the modern value of 365.256363004 days. This remains the most accurate estimate for the length of the sidereal year anywhere in the world for over a thousand years.

18. if the distance from the earth to the moon were equal to an inch, then the distance

to the sun should be 32 feet 6.75 inches away. the nearest star would be 1,658 miles

away. the distance to the galaxy andromeda would be 3.957 billion miles away.

the edge of the universe would be 13.6 light years away.

19. . if the sun were 1 inch big, the distance between stars is about 460 miles. it that distance were put into an inch size, the distance to the edge of the universe would be 1/2 of the way to the nearest star. it the inch equaling the sun’s size were equal to a mile, the distance between stars would be like going around the earth 3,676.75 times. to get to the edge of the universe, we would have to go around the earth almost 40 trillion times (39.76 trillion).

20. the distance to the nearest star is like a mile equaling an inch, and 125 miles of these put into every inch of another 125 miles. the total number of smaller inches is the number of miles to the nearest star.

21. it has been estimated that 4.6 supernovas explode in a galaxy per century. this means that the number of them that explode in the universe is about 146 every second.

22. if the sun were equal to the size of a smoke particle, the distance between the star

would be equal to almost a 100 feet (93.7 feet). to the edge of the universe would be

equal to almost 200 million miles (191,934,403.5 miles)–about 24,000 times around

the earth (24,212.74 times).

23. 3,000 miles of millimeters multiplied by 12,000 with each millimeter equal to a mile

would be the distance to the nearest star.

24. the distance to the nearest star is over 8 billion 3,000 miles distances.

25. if 3,000 miles were equal to a millimeter, then we would need 5,000 miles of

those 3,000 miles millimeters to equal the distance to the nearest star.

26. 10^90 are the number of grains of sand packed together

to fill the universe, 10^100 of hydrogen atoms to fill the universe,

10^113 power of protons would be needed to fill up the universe,

a googol (10 to the 100th power) of grains of sand would fill up 10 billion

universes with grains of sand,

27. if all the stars that make up the universe were all divided so that each person on

the earth would each have an equal number of them, and if each star were the size of

a grain of sand, then each person would have a sphere of stars almost 71 feet big.

28. if the earth were 1 foot big, then the sun would be 109 feet big, a supergiant star would be 20 miles big, and the largest possible star would be 50 miles big.

29 if the sun were the size of a marble, then the large star betelguese (a very large star) would be 4 feet big, and the largest stars would be 15 feet large. if a white dwarf were the size of a marble, then the sun would be 5 feet in diameter and the largest stars would be 150 feet big. if a neutron star were the size of a marble, then a white dwarf would be 30 feet large, the sun 1/2 a mile, and the largest star 1,000 miles. if a black hole were the size of a marble, then a neutron star would be 1 foot big, a white dwarf 50 feet, the sun 1 mile, and the largest stars 2,500 feet in diameter.

30. 340,000 years ago, the star gemingo went supernova. it was only 290 light years away from the earth. it had the brilliance of 5.4 billion suns (-19.5 absolute magnitude). this supernova, being so close to the earth, was apparent magnitude -14.75, or 5 times brighter then a full moon. it was also 80,000 (79,477) times dimmer than the sun.

31. the largest star found so far is called VY canis majoris. it is between 1,800-2,100 times larger than our sun.

32. an object dropped to the surface of proximal centauri would fall 1.8 miles in the first second after it was dropped. an object dropped onto the very large star betelguese would fall 2 millimeter in the first second.

33. There are a million times more stars in the universe than all the grains of sand on the earth.

34. it an inch were the distance to the nearest star, that the distance to the edge of the universe would be the distance around the earth 6 times.

35. how big is a googol (10^100)? we would need over 10,000,000,000 times the number of grains of sand it takes to fill the universe with to equal a googol.

36. Some of the younger stars (lifetimes of 10 million years), if their lifespans were converted to lengths of distances with 10 million years equaling 6.2 miles length, our lifetimes in which a human lives would be 3 inches compared to the stars. For our sun, the time length would be equal to 6,200 miles. For very low mass stars, the time length would be 6,200,000 miles, or 248 times around the earth in distance. Reminding you that a humans lifespan is about 3 inches in length.

37. A model of how to visualize the distance to the nearest star—if a millimeter contained 3 miles of millimeters (or 5 million miles of miles) , and there were 3 more miles of the millimeters (or 5 million miles of miles) which contain the 3 miles of millimeters (5 million miles of miles) inside them , the total number of smaller millimeters (miles) inside the two layers of 3 mile (5 million miles) distances would be the number of miles that equal the distance to the nearest star.

38. If the earth were the size of a smoke particle: the sun would be less than 1/2 of an inch away, the nearest star would be nearly 2 miles away, the distance to the nearest galaxy to us would one like going around the earth 40 times, and the distance to the edge of the universe would equal going around the earth 892,829 times.

39. The number of hydrogen atoms it would take to fill a sphere as big as the universe (93 billion light years) would be 52.65.X10^120 hydrogen atoms..

40 . If the earth were 9 inch (basketball size) in diameter, then the distance to the nearest. Star would be 450,000 miles away. (18 times around the earth)

41. A supernova with 100 billion times brighter than the sun (absolute magnitude -27.5) and is 32.6 light years away would outshine our sun. Eta carina which is 4.8 million suns bright with an absolute magnitude of -16.7, and the pistol star at 1.6 million suns and absolute magnitude of -15.2 would out shine the full moon.

42. If a person kept folding a piece of paper, it would take 27 folds and the paper folded would be 5 miles thick. For the thickness of the paper to be the distance across the united states would take 37 folds of the paper, the distance to the moon would take 42 folds, for the distance to the sun would require 50.56 fold,, and to go from one end of the universe to the other would require 123 folds.

43. There are over a million times more stars in the universe than all the grains of sand on earth.

44. Over 30 (31.7) supernovas explode every second in the universe.

45. If the earth were the size of a smoke particle, the nearest galaxy to us would be almost 2 million miles away and be almost 5 miles big. The edge of the universe would be almost 4 light years away.

46. it would take almost 2.5 X 10^72 atoms to fill the universe.

47. 100 billion, billion, billion times the number of grains of sand that would fill the universe—that number is all the possible chess games possible if each grain of sand were to represent one of the possible chess games.

48. about 500 million supernovas have exploded in our galaxy since it formed almost 15 billion years ago.

49. The recent supernova of 1987 which occurred in the nearby galaxy the large magellan cloud had a luminosity that was 157 million times brighter than our Sun.

50. The first law of prominences, which are like ejections of fire from the sun, says that a prominence can be leaving the sun’s surface at 100 miles per second, then change its velocity to 200 miles per hour, then after a while will abruptly have a velocity of 300 miles per second.

51. If the earth were 1 foot in diameter, then the moon would be over 3 inches big and be 30 feet from the earth, the sun would be almost 110 feet big and be over 2 miles distant, the nearest star would be over 600,000 miles distant, and our galaxy would be 14 trillion miles large.

52. If the earth were the size of a grain of sand, the nearest star would be over 650 miles away.

53. On some stars, like the white dwarf Sirius B, an object dropped to its surface will fall 2,328 miles per second^2. At the opposite extreme, with the star Betelgeuse, objects will fall to its surface at 1.75 millimeters per second^2.

54. Concerning the white dwarf Sirius B, with an acceleration of 2,328 miles per second^2, picking an arbitrary time for an object to fall onto the star and know the distance, if we chose 5 seconds of free fall onto Sirius B, the object would have fallen 29,100 miles.

55. The star Betelgeuse could go supernova at any time and would be 57,575 times brighter than it appears in the sky at present. It would reach an apparent magnitude of -12.4, about as bright as a full moon.

56. If the sun to earth distance were equal to an inch, the Crab Nebula (the well known supernova remnant), would be 11 miles in diameter.

57. The very shortest lives stars I have heard about have a luminosity of 8.5 million suns, a mass of 95.46 suns, and a lifetime of a little over 112,000 years long. The shortest lived stars have a luminosity of .00009075 suns, a mass of .07 suns, and a lifetime of 7.7 trillion years. The difference factor of each one-luminosity is 93.66 billion times difference, for mass is 1,364 difference, and the difference factor for lifetimes is 68.75 million times difference.

58. If an inch were equal to an average human lifetime, the distance of the lifetime of a rather short lives star (100 million years) would be about 21 miles.

59. If an inch were equal to a year, the well known star Betelgeuse’s age of 8.5 million years converted into distance would be 114 miles long. If Betelgeuse’s lifetime of 114 miles were put into a further inch, then the very longest star’s lifetime (almost 7.7 trillion years long) would be equal to almost 14.3 miles distance compared to Betelgeuse’s current age of 8.5 million years that is equal to an inch.

60. If the earth were equal to an inch, the veil nebula, which is what is left of a supernova explosion that occurred 50,000 years ago, would be 500,000 miles big, or the distance around earth 23 times.

61. On a 6.2 mile diameter neutron star, a teaspoon of it would weigh 2.499 billion tons.

62. If the earth were 1 millimeter big, the moon would be 1.19 inches away, the sun would be 38.25 feet away, Saturn would be over a football’s length away (343.5 feet), Pluto would be 5 football field away, the voyager spacecrafts would be almost a mile away (.93 miles), the nearest star would be over 1,969 miles away, andromedas galaxy would be over a billion miles away (1.14 billion)-like going around the earth over 45,000 times (45,678 times), and the edge of the universe would be like going around the earth over 900 million times (923.49 million times).

63. If the lifetime of a short lived star life Betelgeuse (lifetime about 12 million years) were equal to a mile, a person’s lifespan would be equal to about a 1/4 of an inch.

64. the next supernova explosion is statistically expected to occur in around March of 2020 in any one of these galaxies: Milky Way, Andromeda, Triangulum, Large Magellanic Cloud, or the Small Magellanic Cloud.

65. If a grain of sand were equal to a mile, then the earth would be 8 3/4 feet big, the distance to the moon would be 260 feet, and the sun’s distance would be 19.7 miles the nearest star’s would be 5.3 million miles, or 213 times around the earth.

66. The most powerful gamma ray bursts, the most powerful phenomena in the universe and can be seen from one end of the universe to the other, if it were 1 parsec away (3.26 light years), a distance where the sun would be a faint point of light in the night sky, if this very powerful gamma ray burst were at that distance away from us, it would have an absolute magnitude of -29.1 and be 8.87 times brighter than how the sun appears during a bright day here on earth. The most powerful one recorded was 487 trillion times brighter than the sun.

67. The brightest star found so far in the Milky Way galaxy is absolute magnitude -9.9, or 759,081.9 times brighter than the sun.

68. The brightest source in the universe has an absolute magnitude of -33, or 1.36 million billion sun’s brightness. this object is a quasar.

69. If a person were to fall into a black hole, they would see the future of the universe and time would come to a standstill.

70. Wormholes provide a way to go into the past and the future. A wormhole is a theoretical passage through space-time that could create shortcuts for long journeys across the universe.

71. The nearest black hole is at least 15 light years away.

72. Here are the event horizons for a range of masses for black holes:

1. Mini black hole with a mass of 100 million tons-event horizon the size of an atomic nuclei.

2. The earth (mass-7 billion trillion tons)-1/3 of an inch.

3. The sun (mass-2,000 trillion trillion tons)-2 miles.

4. The center of the milky way (mass-2 billion trillion trillion tons)-10 light seconds.

5. The center of galaxy M87 (mass-6 trillion trillion trillion tons)-6 billion miles (2 times the distance to Pluto (60 times the distance from the earth to the sun).

73. How do you know how big the sun is? All that is needed is to know the distance to the sun, the angular size of the sun from the earth, and the law of sines. The distance to the sun is 92.96 million miles. The law of sines is- a/sinA=a/sinB=c/sinC. With a right triangle, the capital letters angles in degrees and the same lettered small letters are the sides of the right triangle opposite the same

lettered angle. We will use the formula-

a/sineA=b/sineB=c/sinC

to find the size of the sun. a will be the size of the sun which we are seeking. The A will be the angular size of the sun as seen from the earth, being .5 degrees. The b will symbolize the distance to the sun, while the B will be 90 degrees. We can leave out the c/sinC part of the formula.

So, when we put our data into the formula, it will look like this—

A/sin.5=92.96 million/sin90

A stands for the size of the sun, which we are seeking. Sin.5=.008726 and sin90=1.

So, putting these into the formula gives us this—

Size of sun/.008726-92.96 million/1

Solving this to find the size of the sun, we come up with— 811,169.96 miles.

This answer is a little different from the more accurate answer of 864,576 miles owning to the approximation of the angular size of the sun as seen from the earth, but if an accurate angular size of the sun were used, we would come up with the accurate size of the sun, 864,576 miles.

74. How to calculate a star’s luminosity—

When we know a star’s distance, we can determine the luminosity of a star. (we will use the sun in our example, and its distance from us is 1.506 x 10^11 meters. To calculate the sun’s energy flux, the rate at which energy reaches us from the sun/star per unit time, we use a charged coupling device camera.which determines how much energy reaches the earth. The sun has an energy flux of 1,343.9 watts/meters^2. We then use a formula to find the surface area of the sphere for the distance from the sun to the Earth’s orbit. The formula is— Area= 4 x 3.14 x Radius^2. The sun’s radius in meters is equal to 7.53 x 10^10 meters. So we have 4 x 3.14 x (1.506 x 10^11)^2= 2.85 x 10^23 meters.^2 To find the total solar flux, multiply this surface area I square meters of the sphere to our orbital distance from the sun by the energy solar flux per square meter received on Earth. We will arrive at the answer from multiplying these two figures together.

2.85 x 10^23 meter x 1,343.9 watts/meter^2=3.83 X 10^26 joules.

The sun’s total energy flux/luminosity/brightness is 3.83 x 10^26 joules of energy per second.

75. A short lived star like Betelgeuse’s lifespan would be equal to 25.25 miles long compared to a human lifetime’s life time of 75 years of only 1 inch long.

76. If a galaxy were equal to an inch large, the universes size would be 73.39 miles in diameter.

77. 6 trillion atoms laid side to side would span 4 miles. 6 trillion 4 miles distances would be needed to reach the nearest star.

78. a gamma ray burst from 1999 was one of the most luminous ever, with an absolute magnitude of -33.21 and a luminosity of 225.2 trillion suns. Its distance is 9 billion light years away and it shown to earth at magnitude 9.

79. If the sun were the size of an atom, the nearest star would be 2 feet 10.7 feet away.

If the earth were the size of an atom, the nearest star would be 312.5 feet away.

80. If BBs were laid end to end until they reached the nearest star, if they were gathered together into a giant ball, this ball would be 4.19 miles big.

81. the energy (rest-mass) equivalent of all the mass in the universe equals 2.7 x 10^69 joules.

82. How to measure the size of the earth- Eratosthenes, over 2000 years ago, gave a very good approximation of the size of the earth. He knew that at the summer solstice that the sun shone directly into a well at Syene at noon. At the same time, in Alexandria, Egypt, approximately 488 miles due north of seen, the angle of elevation (deviation of the sun shining directly into the well/the angle of deviation) of the sun’s rays was about 7.2 degrees. 360 degrees contains 50 7.2 degrees parts. Since the going around the earth is a circle, and since a circle contains 360 degrees, and since a circle is 50 times more than 7.2 degrees, we multiply the 488 miles by 50 and this equals 24,400 miles. This result is 98.3 precent accurate.

83. The number of hydrogen atoms it would take to fill a sphere as big as the universe (93 billion light years) would be 52.65 X 10^120 hydrogen atoms.

84. if an atom’s size were doubled, then that size were doubled, and you kept

doubling the resultant size, it would take 113 of these doublings to result in

a size as big as our universe.

85. THE WINDS OF NEPTUNE REACH 1,250 MILES PER HOUR.

86.the age of stars in the Orion Nebula are only 300,000 years old.

87. the filaments inside the helix nebula extend trillions of miles long.

88. the crab nebula is expanding at 1,100 miles per second, and is now 10 light years large.

89. a tablespoon of a neutron star would weigh 1.85 x 10^9 tons.

90. it an object were dropped onto a white dwarf star, in the first second, it will have traveled 1,900 miles.

91. the most massive black hole is in the center of a galaxy and is 40 billion solar masses.

92. Only 14,100 stars span from one end of a galaxy to the other end.

93. If the earth-sun distance were equal to an inch, the nearest star would be 1 mile away.

94. if the earth were the size of a smoke particle, then the nearest star would be 2 miles away, and the edge of the universe would be equivalent to circling the earth more than 1,900,000 times.

95. If a mile were equal to the size of a grain of sand, then the distance to the planet Venus would be 5.2 miles away.

96. If the earth were the size of a smoke particle, the sun would be a little less than 1/2 an inch away (.47 inches) and the sun’s size would be about 1/3 the size of a sewing needle’s hole, the nearest star 2 miles away, and the size of the universe would be like the distance of going around the earth over 1.8 million times. And you would need to fold a piece of paper 123 times for the resulting thickness of it to be as big as the size of the universe.

97. the absolute magnitude of the planet venus would be 29.23 if it were 32.6 light years away, being visible to the Hubble space telescope which can detect objects as faint as absolute magnitude 31.

98. The gamma ray burst 080916C had an energy of 6.337 x 10^44 joules, 1.658 x 10^18 times more than our sun. That is like if a grain of sand were equal to our sun’s energy output, the GRBs output would have our sun’s outputs equal to a distance equal to 342 billion miles of them, or 43.32 million time going around the earth. The number of suns this GRB’s energy output would make is a sphere 802 feet large filled with grains each equal to our sun’s energy outputs.

99. If the sun were as big as an average living room (about 20 feet big), the largest star known would be almost 6 miles big (5.8 miles).

100. The sun would be magnitude 29.07 as viewed from the andromedian galaxy, and 1.93 x 10^-10 sun’s in luminosity. It would be visible to the Hubble space telescope, which can see to magnitude 31.

101. If an inch were equal to a mile, the nearest star would be a distance of 15,900 times around the earth. Imagine we are on an earth the size of a smoke particle. The nearest star would be 2 miles away from this smoke particle. Imagine we are living on an earth the size of a smoke particle. 2 miles from that would be the nearest star.

102. A lifetime’s worth of driving a car could be compared to being shrunk down to the distance of a grain of sand, and the nearest star would be 20 miles away.

103. If a grain of sand were equal to a lifetime of the distance driving your car (1 million miles), then the distance to the nearest star would be a distance of 2 miles. to go from one end of the universe to the other would be equivalent to the distance of 5.5 million times around the earth.

104. If an atom were equal to the size of 9,677 earths, then the size of the earth would be the size of the universe.

105. For a very short lived star like Betelgeuse with a lifespan of 8 million years, if an inch were equal to a year’s time, then Betelgeuse’s lifetime length would be 1,262.63 miles long. If a person lives 75 years and an inch equals a year, then Betelgeuse’s length lifetime is 94,696.97 miles, or a distance of 11.84 times around the earth. Betelgeuse will die as a supernova explosion in up to 100,000 years from now. Equated to a length for that 100,000 years, the length would be 1 mile (3,053.36 feet long) when 1 inch is equal to a year.

106. The mass of all that is in the universe is 3 x 10^52 kilograms. The rest mass energy of it all is equal to 1.35 x 10^69 joules.

107. If the universe’s 14.7 billion years were equal to 75 years, then all of human civilization (3000 years) would equal 11.65 seconds time.

108. EXAMPLES OF CALCULATING ORBITS—

STEPS TO CALCULATE AN ELLIPTICAL ORBIT—

Suppose we measure 2 coordinates of a comet, one at (4AU,1AU) and the other at (0AU,3AU).

1) We plug in each of the coordinates, the 1st equals the x and the 2nd equals the y, each of the 2 coordinates into b^2 x x^2+a^2 x y^2=a^2 x b^2. Then we subtract the 2 equations from each other. Next, we solve for both a and b. The resulting equation is—

x^2/2.376^2+y^2/1.68^2=1

and this is the equation of the orbit for the 2 given coordinates.

The ellipse equation is— x^2/2.376^2+y^2/1.68^2=1.

Solving for x and y gives—

x=sqrt((1-5.65 x y^2)/2.8) and y=sqrt((1-2.8 x x^2/5.65).

2) perehelion=1.68AU, aphelion=2.376AU. (figures for constants a and b)

3) semimajor axis=A=(perihelion+aphelion)/2=(1.68+2.376)/2=1.9958AU

Semi minor axis=amaller figure of a and b=1.68AU.

4) focii=amaller figure of a and b=1.68AU.

5) distance center of ellipse to the foci=A-perihelion=.3158AU

6) period=aphelion^3/2=3.66 years

7) eccentricity=1-perihelion/A=.158

8) velocity at any instant=1.99 x 10^30 x 6.67 x 10^-11 x (1/radius=1/A)=

At perihelion=15.29 miles/second, at aphelion=10.747 miles/second

HALLEY’S COMET—

period=75.986 years.

focii=.6AU.

perihelion=.6AU.

aphelion=35.28AU.

Semimajor axis=17.94Au

eccentricity=.9855.

Equation of coordinates of orbit—

x=sqrt((1-21.16 x y^2/321.84), and y=sqrt((1-321.84 x x^2/21.16)

Velocity at perihelion=33.23 miles/second, aphelion=3.124 miles/second

STEPS TO CALCULATE A CIRCULAR ORBIT—

Suppose 2 coordinates were recorded of a celestial body, one (3,2,646), and the other (1,3.873). It the celestial body has a circular orbit, the squares of each set of coordinates added together will equal the same defendant number. In this example, —

3^2+2.646^2=15, and 1^2+3.873^2=16, so this is a circular orbit where the equation of the orbit is— 4^2=x^2+y^2, where the 4 in the 4^2 is the radius of the circle, and the x and y are the coordinates of the circular orbit. The eccentricity of of a circular orbit is equal to zero.

STEPS TO CALCULATE A PARABOLIC ORBIT—

Formulas-

velocity=sqrt(2 x G x Mass central body/radius of orbiting body from central body)

trajectory=(4.5 x G x M x Time seconds^2)^1/3

To find out whether 2 coordinates measurements of an orbiting body if a parabolic orbit, say coordinates (3,27) and (2,12), we need to set up a parabolic equation—-

y=b x x^2, then put into it separately the 2 coordinates.

27=b x 3^2, solve for b to arrive at equals to 3.

12=b x 2^2, b also equals 3.

Since b in both equations are equal to each other, the orbiting object is in a parabolic orbit. The equation for the orbit is y=3 x x^2. The period of orbit is infinitely long since the orbiting object never returns. The vertex of the orbit is (0,0). The foci is equal to 3/4. We arrive at this by always using 4 x p, and setting it equal to 3, the number equal to b. When 4 x p=3 is solved, p=3/4. So the focus is at (0,3/4).the velocity of the orbiting body at its closest approach to the central body is equal to 30.05 miles/second. And, for example, in 1 month, the object will be 1.06AU away from the central body.

STEPS TO CALCULATE A HYPERBOLIC ORBIT—

Suppose 2 coordinates of an orbiting celestial body are recored as being at (28.28, 10)AU and (34.64, 14.14)AU positions. We try using the hyperbolic equation

1=x^2/a^2-y^2/b^2, solve for a and b, and the result equals 1, so this is a hyperbolic orbit. a=20 and b=10. The equation for the orbit is—

1=x^2/20^2-y^2/10^2.

Solving for x and y yields—

x=sqrt(400-4 x y^2), and y=sqrt(x^2/4-100(.

The orbit’s eccentricity is equal to sqrt(a^2+b^2)/a=sqrt(400+100)/400=1.118, which is greater than 1, so this is a hyperbolic orbit. For focii=sqrt(a^2+b^2)=22.33AU from the sun’s position, which is equal to 22.33-a=22.33-20=20AU, which makes the focci=(20,0).

The period of this orbiting body is undefined since it will never return.

To find the semimajor axis, we use the velocity formula—

v=sqrt(6.67 x 10^-11 x 1.99 x 10^30 x (2/r-1/semimajor axis)).

r=2.33AU in meters and v=618,000 meters/second. Solving for the semimajor axis yields -1208.12.

Let us determine the velocity of the orbiting object at say 5AU from the sun.

v=sqrt(6.67 x 10^-11 x 1,99 x 10^30 x (2/5AU in meters-1/1208.12))=18.77 kilometers/second, or 11.64 miles/second.

If we wanted to calculate the velocity of the object when it gets as far away as the nearest star, 4.3 light years away, it would be traveling 25.76 meter/second there.

It would take 29.09 days to reach 5AU and 41,021.89 years to reach 4.3 light years distance. This result comes from the equation—

t=distance in meters x 2/(velocity neatest the sun-velocity at the more distant position).

109. An astronomer 1500 years ago calculated the circumference of the earth to 99.8% accuracy.

110.

Milky Way

Barred spiral galaxy

Size- 180,000 x 100,000 light years (thickness 2,000 light years)

Number of stars- 100,000-400,000

absolute magnitude- -18.98 to -20.48

Luminosity- 3.3-13.32 billion suns

Mass of stars- 4.6-6.43 x 10^10 suns

Average luminosity of star- .0033-.332 suns

Average mass of stars- .138-.55 suns

Escape velocity- 550 kilometers/second (341 mph)

Volume of galaxy- 2.7 x 10^14 light years

Number of stars that span across galaxy- 14,852

Number of kinds of stars—

Giants- 950-3,800 million

O stars- 25,700-102,800

B stars- 111-444 million

A stars- 513-2,052 million

F stars- 2.565-10.26 billion

G stars- 6.5-26 billion

K stars- 10.345-41.38 billion

M stars- 65.356-261.424 billion

White dwarfs- 8.55-34.2 billion

Brown dwarfs- 5-20 billion

Estimate number of advanced civilizations- 10-40 billion

111. BBs (2 millimeters in diameter) that stretch from one end of the universe to the other, if they were all gathered together to make a giant ball, would be 1,466 miles in diameter.

112. If a 900 foot diameter sized ball were packed with atoms and then each of these atoms were laid end to end, the resulting length of the atoms laid end to end would stretch from one end of the universe to the other.

113. the number of possible particle configurations in multiple universes would be limited to 10^10^122 distinct possibilities, to be exact. So, with an infinite number of cosmic patches, the particle arrangements within them must repeat — infinitely many times over. This means there are infinitely many “parallel universes”: cosmic patches exactly the same as ours (containing someone exactly like you).

114. The **many-worlds interpretation** is an interpretation of quantum mechanics that implies that all possible alternate histories and futures are real, each representing an actual “world” (or “universe”). In layman’s terms, the hypothesis states there is a very large—perhaps infinite—number of universes, and everything that could possibly have happened in our past, but did not, has occurred in the past of some other universe or universes.

115. if the earth were a black hole, it would be no bigger than a little over 3/4 of an inch big (.7572441 inches).

**ROCKET SCIENCE FACTS **

1. I have calculated optimistic and conservative estimates on how fast spacecraft can travel at 3 points in time:

**conservative estimates**: **2035AD**-23 miles per second; **2200AD**-200 miles per second;**2265AD **(Star Trek’s time)-29% of the speed of light

**optimistic estimates**: **2035AD**-185 miles per second; **2200AD**-8,000 miles per second (4.29% of the speed of light); **2265AD**-99.75% of the speed of light

2. If the Earth were 9 inches big, then the voyager spacecraft that left the solar system travels 90 feet per day and 6 miles a per year, and would now be 174 miles away from the Earth. The proposed Orion interstellar spacecraft travels a mile a day and over 350 miles per year.

3. If a space probe were launched from the Earth at at velocity of 11.5 miles per second, and if that Earth were reduced to a 1 foot size, the Moon would be about 4 inches large, it would be 2.5 feet away from the 1 foot Earth, and it would take 2 days and 9 hour to reach the Moon. the Sun would be over 9 feet large, over 970 feet away, and it would tale the space probe 93 days to reach it. Mars would be 641 feet away and the probe would reach it in just over 2 months. Pluto would be 7.25 miles away and the probe would take just over 10 years to get there. The current distance of the earlier probe that left the solar system, Voyager 2, would be 57 miles away and our probe took 40 years to get that far. The nearest star, Alpha Centauri, would be over 50,000 miles distant and it would take the probe over 69,500 years to get there. To get to the very large star Betelguese, which is visible in the night in the Orion constellation, would take 10.5 million years to get there and the star would be 1.85 miles large. With our Earth reduced to a size of 1 foot, the largest star known would be 4.5 miles large in comparison. The Andromeda galaxy would be 29 billion miles away, and finally, the edge of the universe would be almost 92 light years away.

4. If each year that the voyager spacecraft were to equal a grain of sand, then a sphere 1,000 feet in diameter filled with grains of sand (years) would be how long it would take the spacecraft to cross the universe from one end to the other end.

5. To launch the Saturn 5 rocket, the amount of antimatter need to do it would be 17.155 grams, or 1/26.5 pounds of antimatter. This would require 10 trillion trillion anti-hydrogen atoms of antimatter.

6. To propel a 170 pound person 1/2 of the speed of light, it would require 8.694 x 10^17 joules of energy, equivalent to 28,900 Saturn 5 launches, and would require 106.2 pounds of antimatter to do this.

7. The amount of antimatter to travel to Mars, distance 114 million miles, a 39 day trip, constant acceleration to the end velocity of 16.99 miles per second, and the mass of the rocket at 5,000 tons, the amount of antimatter needed for these specification is 18.964 grams of antimatter (equal to the weight of 6 pennies).

8. To send 1 pound of cargo to alpha Centauri in 43 years at a velocity of 10% of the speed of light using chemical rockets would require 5.9 x 10^2,147 tons of fuel to get there. In comparison, the mass of the entire universe is 3.2 x 10^50 tons .

9. With the recent interstellar mission proposal to alpha Centauri by the starshot project which will take 20 years to get there, if the earth were the size of a smoke particle, the space probe would travel 1.6 feet in a day, 11 feet a week, 44 feet a month, 528 feet in a year, and to complete the mission, 2 miles when it arrived at its destination.

10. I went for a ride in my car on 1/25/18 for a distance of 28 miles. I drove at 30 miles per hour and it took me 56 minutes. If that 28 miles per equal to 1 millimeter, then the nearest star would be 1.22 billion miles away, or 49,054 times the distance going around the earth. To drive to the nearest star at 30mph would take 95,064,263 years.